Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in oral carcinomas of betel quid (BQ) users: Roles of BQ ingredients in the acceleration of tumour cell motility through MMP-1

Chin Hai Lee, Shyun Yeu Liu, Mei Huei Lin, Wei Fan Chiang, Tai Chi Chen, Wen Tsung Huang, Da Shiung Chou, Chang Ta Chiu, Young Chau Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are commonly expressed in carcinomas including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). On the other hand, some evidences suggested that ingredients of betel quid (BQ) inhibit the activity and/or expression of some MMPs thought to be the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. This study was to analyse whether MMP-1 expression is inhibited in OSCC specimens from BQ users and in cell lines survived from the challenge of BQ ingredients. We found that MMP-1 mRNA was expressed in all the tested 27 OSCC. Levels of MMP-1 mRNA and protein were significantly elevated in the tested five OSCC specimens than in their adjacent tissues (P <0.001 and 0.05, respectively). Esophageal carcinoma (CE81T/VGH) and OSCC (OECM-1) cell lines survived from the cytotoxic BQ extract (BQE) and arecoline selection process were found to express higher MMP-1 mRNA and protein levels, or to exhibit a significant acceleration of two-dimensional (2D) motility than their non-selected parental cells. The enhanced motility was further demonstrated to be specifically and significantly inhibited by the MMP-1 neutralizing antibody and/or by the transfection of an MMP-1 specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. These results suggest that in some carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, BQ usage may upregulate MMP-1 expression in the survived tumour cells, and increase their mobility in an MMP-1-dependent manner.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)810-818
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2008



  • Arecoline
  • Betel quid
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • MMP-1
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this