Sepsis is a deadly disease that is widely attributed to endotoxin released by gram-negative bacterial infections often plague emergency care facilities. Conventionally antibiotics and vasopressors are used to treat this disease. Recent treatment protocol shifted to a membrane to remove the offending endotoxin monomer. Despite this shift, membrane-based devices are often extremely costly, hindering accessibility to this life saving medical device. In view of this challenges, we adopted the internally developed polysulfone (PSF) microtube array membrane alternating (MTAM-A) for use in blood sepsis treatment. PSF MTAM-A were with polymyxin B (PMB) molecules immobilized were assembled into an internally developed cartridge housing and subjected to endotoxin removal models with water and blood spiked with 100 EU/ml of endotoxin as the feed solution. Samples were derived at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and endotoxin levels were determined with limulus amebocyte lysate assay and benchmarked against the commercially available Toraymyxin device. The PSF MTAM-A with 2.3 times the surface area was successfully fabricated and with PMB molecules immobilized, and assembled into a hemoperfusion device. Dynamic endotoxin removal test revealed and overall endotoxin removal capacity of 90% and a superior endotoxin removal efficiency that was significantly higher than that of Toraymyxin (internally conducted and reported). The data suggested that PSF MTAM-A PMB membranes could potentially be applied in future hemoperfusion devices which would be significantly more efficient, compact, and affordable; potentially making such a life-saving medical device widely available to the general public.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2903-2911
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
  • microtube array membrane-alternating (MTAM-A)
  • polymyxin B (PMB)
  • polysulfone (PSF)
  • tri-axial electrospinning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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