Background: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index has recently been proposed as a reliable marker of insulin resistance. There is insufficient evidence to verify that the TyG index is correlated with functional outcomes and hemorrhagic transformation and in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT).
Methods: We designed a multicenter cohort study, which enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with IVT between December 2004 and December 2016. The TyG index was divided into tertiles and calculated on a continuous scale. Unfavorable functional outcomes were defined by the modified Rankin Scale of 3-6 at 90 days and the incident rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) within 36 h of IVT onset were surveyed. Stroke severity was defined as mild (4-8), moderate (9-15), or high (≥16) based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores.
Results: Among 914 enrolled patients, the tertiles of the TyG index were 8.48 for T1, 8.48-9.04 for T2, and 9.04 for T3. T3 showed an increased risk of unfavorable functional outcomes at 90 days [odds ratio (OR): 1.76; P = 0.0132]. The TyG index was significantly associated with unfavorable functional outcomes at 90 days (OR: 1.32; P = 0.0431 per unit increase). No association was found between the TyG index and SICH. These findings were applicable for T3 with stroke of moderate (OR, 2.35; P = 0.0465) and high severity (OR: 2.57, P = 0.0440) patients with stroke.
Conclusion: This study supports the strong association between the increased TyG index and increased unfavorable functional outcomes at 90 days in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with IVT. These findings were found to be robust in patients with moderate and high stroke severity.