Few therapeutic options exist for various infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-Acb) complex isolates, including pneumonia. This study investigated the clinical efficacy between aerosolized colistimethate sodium (AS-CMS, 2 million units thrice a day) treatment alone or in combination with standard-dose tigecycline (TGC) in patients with non-bacteremic pneumonia due to XDR-Acb, and explored the factors influencing patients' 30-day mortality.A 1:1 case (n = 106; receiving TGC plus AS-CMS) control (receiving AS-CMS alone with matching scores) observational study was conducted among adult patients with non-bacteremic XDR-Acb complex pneumonia in a Taiwanese medical center from January 2014 through December 2016. The clinically relevant data were retrospectively recorded. The primary endpoint was 30-day case fatality. Secondary endpoints investigated that if the co-morbidities, XDR-A. baumannii as a pneumonic pathogen, therapy-related factors, or airway colonization with colistin-resistant Acb negatively influenced the 14-day clinical condition of enrolled patients.A higher 30-day mortality rate was noted among the group receiving combination therapy (34.0% vs 22.6%; P = .17). The ≥7-day AS-CMS therapy successfully eradicated > 90% of airway XDR-Acb isolates. Nevertheless, follow-up sputum specimens from 10 (6.4% [10/156]) patients were colonized with colistin-resistant Acb isolates. After the conditional factors were adjusted by multivariate logistic analysis, the only factor independently predicting the 30-day case-fatality was the failure of treating XDR-Acb pneumonia at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 38.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.96-142.29; P < .001). Cox proportional regression analysis found that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.05-4.10; P = .035), chronic renal failure (aHR = 3.00; 95% CI = 1.52-5.90; P = .002), non-invasive ventilation use (aHR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.37-5.25; P = .004), and lack of TGC therapy (aHR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.27-1.00; P = .049) adversely influenced the 14-day clinical outcomes. Conversely, the emergence of colistin-resistant Acb isolates in the follow-up sputum samples was not statistically significantly associated with curing or improving XDR-Acb pneumonia.In conclusion, aggressive pulmonary hygiene care, the addition of TGC, and corticosteroid dose tapering were beneficial in improving the 14-day patients' outcomes.
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