Toxicological effects of NCKU-21, a phenanthrene derivative, on cell growth and migration of A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells

Hsien Feng Liao, Chun Hsu Pan, Pei Yu Chou, Yi Fong Chen, Tian Shung Wu, Ming Jyh Sheu, Chieh Hsi Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Chemotherapy insensitivity continues to pose significant challenges for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purposes of this study were to investigate whether 3,6-dimethoxy-1,4,5,8-phenanthrenetetraone (NCKU-21) has potential activity to induce effective toxicological effects in different ethnic NSCLC cell lines, A549 and CL1-5 cells, and to examine its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Mitochondrial metabolic activity and the cell-cycle distribution were analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry in NCKU-21-treated cells. NCKU-21-induced cell apoptosis was verified by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and measurement of caspase-3 activity. Western blotting and wound-healing assays were applied to respectively evaluate regulation of signaling pathways and cell migration by NCKU-21. Molecular interactions between target proteins and NCKU-21 were predicted and performed by molecular docking. A colorimetric screening assay kit was used to evaluate potential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity by NCKU-21. Results: Results indicated that NCKU-21 markedly induced cytotoxic effects that reduced cell viability via cell apoptosis in tested NSCLC cells. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p53 protein expression also increased in both NSCLC cell lines stimulated with NCKU-21. However, repression of PI3K-AKT activation by NCKU-21 was found in CL1-5 cells but not in A549 cells. In addition, increases in phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activity also confirmed the apoptotic effect of NCKU-21 in both NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, cell migration and translational levels of the gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, were obviously reduced in both NSCLC cell lines after incubation with NCKU-21. Experimental data obtained from molecular docking suggested that NCKU-21 can bind to the catalytic pocket of MMP-9. However, the in vitro enzyme activity assay indicated that NCKU-21 has the potential to increase MMP-9 activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NCKU-21 can effectively reduce cell migration and induce apoptosis in A549 and CL1-5 cells, the toxicological effects of which may be partly modulated through PI3K-AKT inhibition, AMPK activation, an increase in the p53 protein, and gelatinase inhibition.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0185021
JournalPLoS One
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2017

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phenanthrene
Cell growth
adenocarcinoma
cell movement
Toxicology
Cell Movement
cell growth
Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
chemical derivatives
lungs
Cells
Derivatives
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Growth
lung neoplasms
Assays
gelatinase B
Gelatinases
cells
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Toxicological effects of NCKU-21, a phenanthrene derivative, on cell growth and migration of A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. / Liao, Hsien Feng; Pan, Chun Hsu; Chou, Pei Yu; Chen, Yi Fong; Wu, Tian Shung; Sheu, Ming Jyh; Wu, Chieh Hsi.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 12, No. 9, e0185021, 01.09.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Chemotherapy insensitivity continues to pose significant challenges for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purposes of this study were to investigate whether 3,6-dimethoxy-1,4,5,8-phenanthrenetetraone (NCKU-21) has potential activity to induce effective toxicological effects in different ethnic NSCLC cell lines, A549 and CL1-5 cells, and to examine its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Mitochondrial metabolic activity and the cell-cycle distribution were analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry in NCKU-21-treated cells. NCKU-21-induced cell apoptosis was verified by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and measurement of caspase-3 activity. Western blotting and wound-healing assays were applied to respectively evaluate regulation of signaling pathways and cell migration by NCKU-21. Molecular interactions between target proteins and NCKU-21 were predicted and performed by molecular docking. A colorimetric screening assay kit was used to evaluate potential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity by NCKU-21. Results: Results indicated that NCKU-21 markedly induced cytotoxic effects that reduced cell viability via cell apoptosis in tested NSCLC cells. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p53 protein expression also increased in both NSCLC cell lines stimulated with NCKU-21. However, repression of PI3K-AKT activation by NCKU-21 was found in CL1-5 cells but not in A549 cells. In addition, increases in phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activity also confirmed the apoptotic effect of NCKU-21 in both NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, cell migration and translational levels of the gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, were obviously reduced in both NSCLC cell lines after incubation with NCKU-21. Experimental data obtained from molecular docking suggested that NCKU-21 can bind to the catalytic pocket of MMP-9. However, the in vitro enzyme activity assay indicated that NCKU-21 has the potential to increase MMP-9 activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NCKU-21 can effectively reduce cell migration and induce apoptosis in A549 and CL1-5 cells, the toxicological effects of which may be partly modulated through PI3K-AKT inhibition, AMPK activation, an increase in the p53 protein, and gelatinase inhibition.",
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T1 - Toxicological effects of NCKU-21, a phenanthrene derivative, on cell growth and migration of A549 and CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells

AU - Liao, Hsien Feng

AU - Pan, Chun Hsu

AU - Chou, Pei Yu

AU - Chen, Yi Fong

AU - Wu, Tian Shung

AU - Sheu, Ming Jyh

AU - Wu, Chieh Hsi

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N2 - Background: Chemotherapy insensitivity continues to pose significant challenges for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purposes of this study were to investigate whether 3,6-dimethoxy-1,4,5,8-phenanthrenetetraone (NCKU-21) has potential activity to induce effective toxicological effects in different ethnic NSCLC cell lines, A549 and CL1-5 cells, and to examine its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Mitochondrial metabolic activity and the cell-cycle distribution were analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry in NCKU-21-treated cells. NCKU-21-induced cell apoptosis was verified by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and measurement of caspase-3 activity. Western blotting and wound-healing assays were applied to respectively evaluate regulation of signaling pathways and cell migration by NCKU-21. Molecular interactions between target proteins and NCKU-21 were predicted and performed by molecular docking. A colorimetric screening assay kit was used to evaluate potential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity by NCKU-21. Results: Results indicated that NCKU-21 markedly induced cytotoxic effects that reduced cell viability via cell apoptosis in tested NSCLC cells. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p53 protein expression also increased in both NSCLC cell lines stimulated with NCKU-21. However, repression of PI3K-AKT activation by NCKU-21 was found in CL1-5 cells but not in A549 cells. In addition, increases in phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activity also confirmed the apoptotic effect of NCKU-21 in both NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, cell migration and translational levels of the gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, were obviously reduced in both NSCLC cell lines after incubation with NCKU-21. Experimental data obtained from molecular docking suggested that NCKU-21 can bind to the catalytic pocket of MMP-9. However, the in vitro enzyme activity assay indicated that NCKU-21 has the potential to increase MMP-9 activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NCKU-21 can effectively reduce cell migration and induce apoptosis in A549 and CL1-5 cells, the toxicological effects of which may be partly modulated through PI3K-AKT inhibition, AMPK activation, an increase in the p53 protein, and gelatinase inhibition.

AB - Background: Chemotherapy insensitivity continues to pose significant challenges for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purposes of this study were to investigate whether 3,6-dimethoxy-1,4,5,8-phenanthrenetetraone (NCKU-21) has potential activity to induce effective toxicological effects in different ethnic NSCLC cell lines, A549 and CL1-5 cells, and to examine its anticancer mechanisms. Methods: Mitochondrial metabolic activity and the cell-cycle distribution were analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry in NCKU-21-treated cells. NCKU-21-induced cell apoptosis was verified by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and measurement of caspase-3 activity. Western blotting and wound-healing assays were applied to respectively evaluate regulation of signaling pathways and cell migration by NCKU-21. Molecular interactions between target proteins and NCKU-21 were predicted and performed by molecular docking. A colorimetric screening assay kit was used to evaluate potential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity by NCKU-21. Results: Results indicated that NCKU-21 markedly induced cytotoxic effects that reduced cell viability via cell apoptosis in tested NSCLC cells. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p53 protein expression also increased in both NSCLC cell lines stimulated with NCKU-21. However, repression of PI3K-AKT activation by NCKU-21 was found in CL1-5 cells but not in A549 cells. In addition, increases in phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activity also confirmed the apoptotic effect of NCKU-21 in both NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, cell migration and translational levels of the gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, were obviously reduced in both NSCLC cell lines after incubation with NCKU-21. Experimental data obtained from molecular docking suggested that NCKU-21 can bind to the catalytic pocket of MMP-9. However, the in vitro enzyme activity assay indicated that NCKU-21 has the potential to increase MMP-9 activity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NCKU-21 can effectively reduce cell migration and induce apoptosis in A549 and CL1-5 cells, the toxicological effects of which may be partly modulated through PI3K-AKT inhibition, AMPK activation, an increase in the p53 protein, and gelatinase inhibition.

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