Three-dimensional reconstruction of cranial defect using active contour model and image registration

Yuan-Lin Liao, Chia-Feng Lu, Yung-Nien Sun, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Jiann-Der Lee, Shih-Tseng Lee, Yu-Te Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In neurosurgery, cranial incisions during craniotomy can be recovered by cranioplasty-a surgical operation using cranial implants to repair skull defects. However, surgeons often encounter difficulties when grafting prefabricated cranial plates into defective areas, since a perfect match to the cranial incision is difficult to achieve. Previous studies using mirroring technique, surface interpolation, or deformed template had limitations in skull reconstruction to match the patient's original appearance. For this study, we utilized low-resolution and high-resolution computed tomography images from the patient to repair skull defects, whilst preserving the original shape. Since the accuracy of skull reconstruction was associated with the partial volume effects in the low-resolution images and the percentage of the skull defect in the high-resolution images, the low-resolution images with intact skull were resampled and thresholded followed by active contour model to suppress partial volume artifacts. The resulting low-resolution images were registered with the high-resolution ones, which exhibited different percentages of cranial defect, to extract the incised cranial part. Finally, mesh smoothing refined the three-dimensional model of the cranial defect. Simulation results indicate that the reconstruction was 93.94% accurate for a 20% skull material removal, and 97.76% accurate for 40% skull material removal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively creates a customized implant, which can readily be used in cranioplasty. © 2010 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-211
Number of pages9
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Volume49
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Image registration
Image resolution
Defects
Repair
Neurosurgery
Optical resolving power
Tomography
Interpolation

Keywords

  • Active contour model
  • Computed tomography
  • Cranial defect
  • Image registration
  • Skull reconstruction
  • Cranial implants
  • Cranioplasty
  • High resolution
  • High resolution image
  • High-resolution computed tomography
  • Low resolution images
  • Material removal
  • Mesh smoothing
  • Partial volume effect
  • Partial volumes
  • Perfect matches
  • Simulation result
  • Surface interpolation
  • Surgical operation
  • Three-dimensional model
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction
  • Algorithms
  • Computerized tomography
  • Defects
  • Image matching
  • Implants (surgical)
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Neurosurgery
  • Stripping (removal)
  • Three dimensional
  • algorithm
  • article
  • audiovisual equipment
  • computer aided design
  • computer assisted tomography
  • craniotomy
  • human
  • image processing
  • male
  • methodology
  • middle aged
  • plastic surgery
  • prostheses and orthoses
  • prosthesis
  • radiography
  • skull
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Craniotomy
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
  • Skull
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed

Cite this

Three-dimensional reconstruction of cranial defect using active contour model and image registration. / Liao, Yuan-Lin; Lu, Chia-Feng; Sun, Yung-Nien; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Jiann-Der; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Yu-Te.

In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2011, p. 203-211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liao, Yuan-Lin ; Lu, Chia-Feng ; Sun, Yung-Nien ; Wu, Chieh-Tsai ; Lee, Jiann-Der ; Lee, Shih-Tseng ; Wu, Yu-Te. / Three-dimensional reconstruction of cranial defect using active contour model and image registration. In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 2011 ; Vol. 49, No. 2. pp. 203-211.
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abstract = "In neurosurgery, cranial incisions during craniotomy can be recovered by cranioplasty-a surgical operation using cranial implants to repair skull defects. However, surgeons often encounter difficulties when grafting prefabricated cranial plates into defective areas, since a perfect match to the cranial incision is difficult to achieve. Previous studies using mirroring technique, surface interpolation, or deformed template had limitations in skull reconstruction to match the patient's original appearance. For this study, we utilized low-resolution and high-resolution computed tomography images from the patient to repair skull defects, whilst preserving the original shape. Since the accuracy of skull reconstruction was associated with the partial volume effects in the low-resolution images and the percentage of the skull defect in the high-resolution images, the low-resolution images with intact skull were resampled and thresholded followed by active contour model to suppress partial volume artifacts. The resulting low-resolution images were registered with the high-resolution ones, which exhibited different percentages of cranial defect, to extract the incised cranial part. Finally, mesh smoothing refined the three-dimensional model of the cranial defect. Simulation results indicate that the reconstruction was 93.94{\%} accurate for a 20{\%} skull material removal, and 97.76{\%} accurate for 40{\%} skull material removal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively creates a customized implant, which can readily be used in cranioplasty. {\circledC} 2010 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.",
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author = "Yuan-Lin Liao and Chia-Feng Lu and Yung-Nien Sun and Chieh-Tsai Wu and Jiann-Der Lee and Shih-Tseng Lee and Yu-Te Wu",
note = "被引用次數:9 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: MBECD 通訊地址: Wu, Y.-T.; Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong St., Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ytwu@ym.edu.tw 參考文獻: Adams, R., Bischof, L., Seeded region growing (1994) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 16, pp. 641-647. , 10.1109/34.295913; Besl, P.J., McKay, N.D., A method for registration of 3-D shapes (1992) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 14, pp. 239-256. , 10.1109/34.121791; Borgefors, G., Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm (1988) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 10, pp. 849-865. , 10.1109/34.9107; Carr, J.C., Richard Fright, W., Beatson, R.K., Surface interpolation with radial basis functions for medical imaging (1997) IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 16 (1), pp. 96-107. , PII S027800629700983X; Chong, C.S., Lee, H., Kumar, A.S., Automatic hole repairing for Cranioplasty using B{\'e}zier surface approximation (2006) Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 17 (2), pp. 344-352. , DOI 10.1097/00001665-200603000-00024, PII 0000166520060300000024; Cohen, L.D., On active contour models and balloons (1991) CVGIP: Image Underst, 53, pp. 211-218. , 10.1016/1049-9660(91)90028-N; Dean, D., Min, K.-J., Deformable templates for preoperative computer-aided design and fabrication of large cranial implants (2003) Int Congr ser, 1256, pp. 710-715. , 10.1016/S0531-5131(03)00514-4; Hartkens, T., Hill, D.L.G., Castellano-Smith, A.D., Hawkes, D.J., Maurer, C.R., Martin, A.J., Hall, W.A., Truwit, C.L., Measurement and analysis of brain deformation during neurosurgery (2003) IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 22, pp. 82-92. , 1:STN:280:DC{\%}2BD3s7osVGltA{\%}3D{\%}3D 10.1109/TMI.2002.806596 12703762; Hill, D.L.G., Batchelor, P.G., Holden, M., Hawkes, D.J., Medical image registration (2001) Physics in Medicine and Biology, 46 (3), pp. R1-R45. , DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/201, PII S0031915501968769; Hutchinson, P., Timofeev, I., Kirkpatrick, P., Surgery for brain edema (2007) Neurosurg Focus, 22, p. 14. , 10.3171/foc.2007.22.5.15 17613232; Kass, M., Witkin, A., Terzopoulos, D., Snakes: Active contour models (1987) Int J Comput Vis, 1, pp. 321-331. , 10.1007/BF00133570; Kozerke, S., Botnar, R., Oyre, S., Scheidegger, M.B., Pedersen, E.M., Boesiger, P., Automatic vessel segmentation using active contours in cine phase contrast flow measurements (1999) Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 10 (1), pp. 41-51. , DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199907)10:1<41::AID-JMRI6>3.0.CO;2-J; Lee, M.-Y., Chang, C.-C., Lin, C.-C., Lo, L.-J., Chen, Y.-R., Custom implant design for patients with cranial defects (2002) IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21 (2), pp. 38-44. , DOI 10.1109/MEMB.2002.1000184; Lee, S.-C., Wu, C.-T., Lee, S.-T., Chen, P.-J., Cranioplasty using polymethyl methacrylate prostheses (2009) J Clin Neurosci, 16, pp. 56-63. , 1:CAS:528:DC{\%}2BD1cXhsVCku7{\%}2FJ 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.04.001 19046734; Liao, Y.-L., Sun, Y.-N., Lu, C.-F., Wu, Y.-T., Wu, C.-T., Lee, S.-T., Lee, J.-D., Skull-based registration of intra-subject CT images: The effects of different resolutions and partial contents (2010) Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Technology (ICBBT), pp. 269-272. , Mahadevan V, Zhou J (eds) Research Publishing Services, Singapore; Lorensen, W.E., Cline, H.E., Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm (1987) ACM SIGGRAPH Comput Graph, 21, pp. 163-169. , 10.1145/37402.37422; Maes, F., Collignon, A., Vandermeulen, D., Marchal, G., Suetens, P., Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information (1997) IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 16 (2), pp. 187-198. , PII S0278006297023975; Manawadu, D., Quateen, A., Findlay, J.M., Hemicraniectomy for massive middle cerebral artery infarction: A review (2008) Can J Neurol Sci, 35, pp. 544-550. , 19235437; Maravelakis, E., David, K., Antoniadis, A., Manios, A., Bilalis, N., Papaharilaou, Y., Reverse engineering techniques for cranioplasty: A case study (2008) Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 32 (2), pp. 115-121. , DOI 10.1080/03091900600700749, PII 781450477; Ohtake, Y., Belyaev, A., Bogaevski, I., Mesh regularization and adaptive smoothing (2001) CAD Computer Aided Design, 33 (11), pp. 789-800. , DOI 10.1016/S0010-4485(01)00095-1, PII S0010448501000951; Pelizzari, C.A., Chen, G.T.Y., Spelbring, D.R., Weichselbaum, R.R., Chen, C.-T., Accurate three-dimensional registration of CT, PET, an/or MR images of the brain (1989) Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 13 (1), pp. 20-26; Press, W.H., (1992) Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, , Cambridge University Press Cambridge/New York; Roche, A., Malandain, G., Pennec, X., Ayache, N., The Correlation Ratio as a New Similarity Measure for Multimodal Image Registration (1998) Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (1496), pp. 1115-1124. , Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI'98; Schirmer, C.M., Ackil, A.A., Malek, A.M., Decompressive craniectomy (2008) Neurocrit Care, 8, pp. 456-470. , 10.1007/s12028-008-9082-y 18392785; Sommer III, H.J., Eckhardt, R.B., Shiang, T.Y., Superquadric modeling of cranial and cerebral shape and asymmetry (2006) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129 (2), pp. 189-195. , DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20269; Subramaniam, S., Hill, M.D., Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: An update (2009) Neurologist, 15, pp. 178-184. , 10.1097/NRL.0b013e3181963d19 19590377; Wu, T., Engelhardt, M., Fieten, L., Popovic, A., Radermacher, K., Anatomically constrained deformation for design of cranial implant: Methodology and validation (2006) Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 4190 LNCS - I, pp. 9-16. , Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2006 - 9th International Conference, Proceedings; Wu, W.Z., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Wang, W.S., Fabrication of repairing skull bone defects based on the rapid prototyping (2009) J Bioact Compat Polym, 24, pp. 125-136. , 1:CAS:528:DC{\%}2BD1MXjsV2iu7s{\%}3D 10.1177/0883911509105848; Yushkevich, P.A., Piven, J., Hazlett, H.C., Smith, R.G., Ho, S., Gee, J.C., Gerig, G., User-guided 3D active contour segmentation of anatomical structures: Significantly improved efficiency and reliability (2006) NeuroImage, 31 (3), pp. 1116-1128. , DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.01.015, PII S1053811906000632",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three-dimensional reconstruction of cranial defect using active contour model and image registration

AU - Liao, Yuan-Lin

AU - Lu, Chia-Feng

AU - Sun, Yung-Nien

AU - Wu, Chieh-Tsai

AU - Lee, Jiann-Der

AU - Lee, Shih-Tseng

AU - Wu, Yu-Te

N1 - 被引用次數:9 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: MBECD 通訊地址: Wu, Y.-T.; Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong St., Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ytwu@ym.edu.tw 參考文獻: Adams, R., Bischof, L., Seeded region growing (1994) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 16, pp. 641-647. , 10.1109/34.295913; Besl, P.J., McKay, N.D., A method for registration of 3-D shapes (1992) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 14, pp. 239-256. , 10.1109/34.121791; Borgefors, G., Hierarchical chamfer matching: A parametric edge matching algorithm (1988) IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 10, pp. 849-865. , 10.1109/34.9107; Carr, J.C., Richard Fright, W., Beatson, R.K., Surface interpolation with radial basis functions for medical imaging (1997) IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 16 (1), pp. 96-107. , PII S027800629700983X; Chong, C.S., Lee, H., Kumar, A.S., Automatic hole repairing for Cranioplasty using Bézier surface approximation (2006) Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 17 (2), pp. 344-352. , DOI 10.1097/00001665-200603000-00024, PII 0000166520060300000024; Cohen, L.D., On active contour models and balloons (1991) CVGIP: Image Underst, 53, pp. 211-218. , 10.1016/1049-9660(91)90028-N; Dean, D., Min, K.-J., Deformable templates for preoperative computer-aided design and fabrication of large cranial implants (2003) Int Congr ser, 1256, pp. 710-715. , 10.1016/S0531-5131(03)00514-4; Hartkens, T., Hill, D.L.G., Castellano-Smith, A.D., Hawkes, D.J., Maurer, C.R., Martin, A.J., Hall, W.A., Truwit, C.L., Measurement and analysis of brain deformation during neurosurgery (2003) IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 22, pp. 82-92. , 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3s7osVGltA%3D%3D 10.1109/TMI.2002.806596 12703762; Hill, D.L.G., Batchelor, P.G., Holden, M., Hawkes, D.J., Medical image registration (2001) Physics in Medicine and Biology, 46 (3), pp. R1-R45. , DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/46/3/201, PII S0031915501968769; Hutchinson, P., Timofeev, I., Kirkpatrick, P., Surgery for brain edema (2007) Neurosurg Focus, 22, p. 14. , 10.3171/foc.2007.22.5.15 17613232; Kass, M., Witkin, A., Terzopoulos, D., Snakes: Active contour models (1987) Int J Comput Vis, 1, pp. 321-331. , 10.1007/BF00133570; Kozerke, S., Botnar, R., Oyre, S., Scheidegger, M.B., Pedersen, E.M., Boesiger, P., Automatic vessel segmentation using active contours in cine phase contrast flow measurements (1999) Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 10 (1), pp. 41-51. , DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199907)10:1<41::AID-JMRI6>3.0.CO;2-J; Lee, M.-Y., Chang, C.-C., Lin, C.-C., Lo, L.-J., Chen, Y.-R., Custom implant design for patients with cranial defects (2002) IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21 (2), pp. 38-44. , DOI 10.1109/MEMB.2002.1000184; Lee, S.-C., Wu, C.-T., Lee, S.-T., Chen, P.-J., Cranioplasty using polymethyl methacrylate prostheses (2009) J Clin Neurosci, 16, pp. 56-63. , 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVCku7%2FJ 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.04.001 19046734; Liao, Y.-L., Sun, Y.-N., Lu, C.-F., Wu, Y.-T., Wu, C.-T., Lee, S.-T., Lee, J.-D., Skull-based registration of intra-subject CT images: The effects of different resolutions and partial contents (2010) Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Technology (ICBBT), pp. 269-272. , Mahadevan V, Zhou J (eds) Research Publishing Services, Singapore; Lorensen, W.E., Cline, H.E., Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm (1987) ACM SIGGRAPH Comput Graph, 21, pp. 163-169. , 10.1145/37402.37422; Maes, F., Collignon, A., Vandermeulen, D., Marchal, G., Suetens, P., Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information (1997) IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 16 (2), pp. 187-198. , PII S0278006297023975; Manawadu, D., Quateen, A., Findlay, J.M., Hemicraniectomy for massive middle cerebral artery infarction: A review (2008) Can J Neurol Sci, 35, pp. 544-550. , 19235437; Maravelakis, E., David, K., Antoniadis, A., Manios, A., Bilalis, N., Papaharilaou, Y., Reverse engineering techniques for cranioplasty: A case study (2008) Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 32 (2), pp. 115-121. , DOI 10.1080/03091900600700749, PII 781450477; Ohtake, Y., Belyaev, A., Bogaevski, I., Mesh regularization and adaptive smoothing (2001) CAD Computer Aided Design, 33 (11), pp. 789-800. , DOI 10.1016/S0010-4485(01)00095-1, PII S0010448501000951; Pelizzari, C.A., Chen, G.T.Y., Spelbring, D.R., Weichselbaum, R.R., Chen, C.-T., Accurate three-dimensional registration of CT, PET, an/or MR images of the brain (1989) Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 13 (1), pp. 20-26; Press, W.H., (1992) Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, , Cambridge University Press Cambridge/New York; Roche, A., Malandain, G., Pennec, X., Ayache, N., The Correlation Ratio as a New Similarity Measure for Multimodal Image Registration (1998) Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (1496), pp. 1115-1124. , Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI'98; Schirmer, C.M., Ackil, A.A., Malek, A.M., Decompressive craniectomy (2008) Neurocrit Care, 8, pp. 456-470. , 10.1007/s12028-008-9082-y 18392785; Sommer III, H.J., Eckhardt, R.B., Shiang, T.Y., Superquadric modeling of cranial and cerebral shape and asymmetry (2006) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129 (2), pp. 189-195. , DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20269; Subramaniam, S., Hill, M.D., Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: An update (2009) Neurologist, 15, pp. 178-184. , 10.1097/NRL.0b013e3181963d19 19590377; Wu, T., Engelhardt, M., Fieten, L., Popovic, A., Radermacher, K., Anatomically constrained deformation for design of cranial implant: Methodology and validation (2006) Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 4190 LNCS - I, pp. 9-16. , Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2006 - 9th International Conference, Proceedings; Wu, W.Z., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Wang, W.S., Fabrication of repairing skull bone defects based on the rapid prototyping (2009) J Bioact Compat Polym, 24, pp. 125-136. , 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjsV2iu7s%3D 10.1177/0883911509105848; Yushkevich, P.A., Piven, J., Hazlett, H.C., Smith, R.G., Ho, S., Gee, J.C., Gerig, G., User-guided 3D active contour segmentation of anatomical structures: Significantly improved efficiency and reliability (2006) NeuroImage, 31 (3), pp. 1116-1128. , DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.01.015, PII S1053811906000632

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - In neurosurgery, cranial incisions during craniotomy can be recovered by cranioplasty-a surgical operation using cranial implants to repair skull defects. However, surgeons often encounter difficulties when grafting prefabricated cranial plates into defective areas, since a perfect match to the cranial incision is difficult to achieve. Previous studies using mirroring technique, surface interpolation, or deformed template had limitations in skull reconstruction to match the patient's original appearance. For this study, we utilized low-resolution and high-resolution computed tomography images from the patient to repair skull defects, whilst preserving the original shape. Since the accuracy of skull reconstruction was associated with the partial volume effects in the low-resolution images and the percentage of the skull defect in the high-resolution images, the low-resolution images with intact skull were resampled and thresholded followed by active contour model to suppress partial volume artifacts. The resulting low-resolution images were registered with the high-resolution ones, which exhibited different percentages of cranial defect, to extract the incised cranial part. Finally, mesh smoothing refined the three-dimensional model of the cranial defect. Simulation results indicate that the reconstruction was 93.94% accurate for a 20% skull material removal, and 97.76% accurate for 40% skull material removal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively creates a customized implant, which can readily be used in cranioplasty. © 2010 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.

AB - In neurosurgery, cranial incisions during craniotomy can be recovered by cranioplasty-a surgical operation using cranial implants to repair skull defects. However, surgeons often encounter difficulties when grafting prefabricated cranial plates into defective areas, since a perfect match to the cranial incision is difficult to achieve. Previous studies using mirroring technique, surface interpolation, or deformed template had limitations in skull reconstruction to match the patient's original appearance. For this study, we utilized low-resolution and high-resolution computed tomography images from the patient to repair skull defects, whilst preserving the original shape. Since the accuracy of skull reconstruction was associated with the partial volume effects in the low-resolution images and the percentage of the skull defect in the high-resolution images, the low-resolution images with intact skull were resampled and thresholded followed by active contour model to suppress partial volume artifacts. The resulting low-resolution images were registered with the high-resolution ones, which exhibited different percentages of cranial defect, to extract the incised cranial part. Finally, mesh smoothing refined the three-dimensional model of the cranial defect. Simulation results indicate that the reconstruction was 93.94% accurate for a 20% skull material removal, and 97.76% accurate for 40% skull material removal. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively creates a customized implant, which can readily be used in cranioplasty. © 2010 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.

KW - Active contour model

KW - Computed tomography

KW - Cranial defect

KW - Image registration

KW - Skull reconstruction

KW - Cranial implants

KW - Cranioplasty

KW - High resolution

KW - High resolution image

KW - High-resolution computed tomography

KW - Low resolution images

KW - Material removal

KW - Mesh smoothing

KW - Partial volume effect

KW - Partial volumes

KW - Perfect matches

KW - Simulation result

KW - Surface interpolation

KW - Surgical operation

KW - Three-dimensional model

KW - Three-dimensional reconstruction

KW - Algorithms

KW - Computerized tomography

KW - Defects

KW - Image matching

KW - Implants (surgical)

KW - Musculoskeletal system

KW - Neurosurgery

KW - Stripping (removal)

KW - Three dimensional

KW - algorithm

KW - article

KW - audiovisual equipment

KW - computer aided design

KW - computer assisted tomography

KW - craniotomy

KW - human

KW - image processing

KW - male

KW - methodology

KW - middle aged

KW - plastic surgery

KW - prostheses and orthoses

KW - prosthesis

KW - radiography

KW - skull

KW - Computer-Aided Design

KW - Craniotomy

KW - Humans

KW - Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Models, Anatomic

KW - Prostheses and Implants

KW - Prosthesis Design

KW - Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

KW - Skull

KW - Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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