Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

Sassy Bhawamai, Shyh Hsiang Lin, Yuan Yu Hou, Yue Hwa Chen

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5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0-3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number32941
JournalFood and Nutrition Research
Volume60
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 20 2016

Fingerprint

black rice
Cooking
anti-inflammatory activity
cyanidin
cooking
phenolic compounds
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Hot Temperature
protocatechuic acid
glucosides
heat
rice
extracts
washing
bioactive properties
anthocyanins
cookers
antioxidants
Anthocyanins
tumor necrosis factors

Keywords

  • Anthocyanin
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Antioxidation
  • Black rice
  • Cyanidin-3-glucoside
  • Protocatechuic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

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title = "Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice",
abstract = "Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0-3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.",
keywords = "Anthocyanin, Anti-inflammation, Antioxidation, Black rice, Cyanidin-3-glucoside, Protocatechuic acid",
author = "Sassy Bhawamai and Lin, {Shyh Hsiang} and Hou, {Yuan Yu} and Chen, {Yue Hwa}",
year = "2016",
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language = "English",
volume = "60",
journal = "Food and Nutrition Research",
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T1 - Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

AU - Bhawamai, Sassy

AU - Lin, Shyh Hsiang

AU - Hou, Yuan Yu

AU - Chen, Yue Hwa

PY - 2016/9/20

Y1 - 2016/9/20

N2 - Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0-3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

AB - Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0-3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

KW - Anthocyanin

KW - Anti-inflammation

KW - Antioxidation

KW - Black rice

KW - Cyanidin-3-glucoside

KW - Protocatechuic acid

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