The roles of the thioredoxin system and peroxiredoxins in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

Victor T K Chen, Chuen Lin Huang, Yi Chao Lee, Wei Chen Liao, Nai Kuei Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)


The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP +), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin, N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces death in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, suggesting a cell model of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most of the toxic mechanisms remain illusive. In this study, we have found that MPP + induced apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells as measured by the MTT assay and annexin V-FITC staining. Besides, MPP + also resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial free radical formation as imaged by the staining of TMRE or MitoSOX, respectively, confirming the neurotoxic effect of MPP + by interfering with mitochondrial functions. Western blot analysis indicated that MPP + differentially regulated the expressions and over-oxidation of thioredoxin systems and peroxiredoxins. Since these enzymes are known to prevent oxidative stress and apoptosis, these evidences could be regarded as a novel neurotoxic mechanism of MPP + and also provide an alternative view of developing drug therapies for PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1577-1583
Number of pages7
JournalToxicology in Vitro
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion
  • Peroxiredoxin
  • Thioredoxin
  • Thioredoxin reductase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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