SEPTINS (FULL NAME: Septin; symbol name: SEPT) belong to a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins that are required for many cellular functions, including membrane compartmentalization, vesicle trafficking, mitosis and cytoskeletal remodeling. Two of the 14 family members in the mammalian species, Septin12 and 14 are expressed specifically in the testis. In the mouse, knockout of Septin4 and Septin12 leads to male sterility with distinctive sperm pathology (defective annulus or bent neck). In humans, sperm with abnormal expression patterns of SEPT4, 7 and 12 are more prevalent in infertile men. How septin filament is assembled/dissembled and how the SEPT-related complex regulates spermatogenesis still await further investigation.