Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles found in body fluids including peripheral blood. Microparticles are an intrinsic part of blood labile products delivered to transfused patients and have active roles in inflammation. They are delimited by a lipid bilayer composed mainly of phospholipids, cholesterol, membrane-associated proteins, intracellular components such as metabolic enzymes, proteins-involved in adhesion and fusion, cytoskeletal-associated proteins, surface glycoproteins and/or chemokines. Microparticles can trigger a pro-inflammatory message to neighbouring or target cells. Microparticles originating from platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells are associated with a variety of pathophysiological conditions. This review summarises the role of Microparticles in modulating inflammation.
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