The relationships between hemoglobin and insulin resistance, glucose effectiveness, and first-and second-phase insulin secretion in adult Chinese

Yen Shan Yang, Chung Ze Wu, Jiunn Diann Lin, Chang Hsun Hsieh, Yen Lin Chen, Dee Pei, Shi Wen Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: We denote the four major factors related to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as “diabetes factor” (DF); increased insulin resistance (IR); decreased glucose effectiveness (GE); and the first-and-second-phase of insulin secretion (FPIS, SPIS). The level of hemoglobin (Hb) was found to be related to IR and FPIS, but no-known studies focused on its role in relation to SPIS and GE. In this study, we aim to evaluate the relationships between Hb and all four DFs in the same individual. Subjects and methods: We randomly enrolled 24,407 men and 24,889 women between 30 and 59 years old. IR, FPIS, SPIS and GE were measured according to equations published in our previous studies. To compare the slopes between Hb and the four DFs with different units, we converted their units to percent of change per unit of increased Hb. Results: Age, HDL-cholesterol and GE were higher in women; BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, TG, Hb, FPIS, SPIS and IR were higher in men. After they were converted into percentage, the closeness of their relationships to Hb, from the highest to the lowest, were GE, IR, FPIS and SPIS for women and IR, GE, FPIS and SPIS for men. GE was the only one negatively related to Hb. Conclusions: Our data showed that IR, FPIS and SPIS were both positively and, GE negatively, related to the Hb in adult Chinese. For women, GE had the closest association with Hb; for men, it was IR. Both phases of insulin secretion had relatively weaker relationships than IR and GE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-515
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019



  • Diabetes mellitus
  • First phase insulin secretion
  • Glucose effectiveness
  • Hemoglobin
  • Insulin resistance
  • Second phase insulin secretion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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