The relationship of self-relatedness and emotional processing

Alexander Heinzel, Georg Franz Josef Northoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Self and emotion have been discussed separately in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience whereas their relationship has been rather neglected. We here suggest that they are intrinsically linked by demonstrating that self-relatedness accounts for the subjectivity of emotions, and emotional valence reflects affectivity of the self. Based on functional imaging studies, we discuss different possible spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS) that allow us to link and, at the same time, to distinguish self-relatedness and emotional valence. We conclude that the aCMS may be crucial in affectively colouring our self and associating our emotional feelings with the self. © Imprint Academic, 2014.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-48
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Consciousness Studies
Volume21
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Coloring
emotions
relatedness
Emotions
Imaging techniques
neurophysiology
psychology
Processing
image analysis
Neurosciences
Psychology
Emotion
Valence

Keywords

  • Anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS)
  • Emotional experience
  • Emotions
  • Self
  • Self-related processing

Cite this

The relationship of self-relatedness and emotional processing. / Heinzel, Alexander; Northoff, Georg Franz Josef.

In: Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 21, No. 9-10, 2014, p. 30-48.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "The relationship of self-relatedness and emotional processing",
abstract = "Self and emotion have been discussed separately in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience whereas their relationship has been rather neglected. We here suggest that they are intrinsically linked by demonstrating that self-relatedness accounts for the subjectivity of emotions, and emotional valence reflects affectivity of the self. Based on functional imaging studies, we discuss different possible spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS) that allow us to link and, at the same time, to distinguish self-relatedness and emotional valence. We conclude that the aCMS may be crucial in affectively colouring our self and associating our emotional feelings with the self. {\circledC} Imprint Academic, 2014.",
keywords = "Anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS), Emotional experience, Emotions, Self, Self-related processing",
author = "Alexander Heinzel and Northoff, {Georg Franz Josef}",
note = "Export Date: 11 May 2016 Correspondence Address: Heinzel, A.; Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, Germany; email: aheinzel@ukaachen.de References: Aftanas, L.I., Reva, N.V., Savotina, L.N., Makhnev, V.P., Neurophysio-logical correlates of induced discrete emotions in humans: An individually oriented analysis (2006) Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 36, pp. 119-130; Anderson, A.K., Christoff, K., Stappen, I., Panitz, D., Ghahremani, D.G., Glover, G., Gabrieli, J.D., Sobel, N., Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction (2003) Nature Neuroscience, 6, pp. 196-202; Beer, J.S., This time with motivation: The implications of social neuroscience for research on motivated self-and other-perccption (2012) Motivation and Emotion, 36, pp. 38-45; Colombetti, G., Appraising valence (2005) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (8-10), pp. 103-126; Craig, A.D., How do you feel-now? The anterior insula and human awareness (2009) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, pp. 59-70; Craig, A.D., The sentient self (2010) Brain Structure and Function, 214, pp. 563-577; Craig, A.D., Significance of the insula for the evolution of human awareness of feelings from the body (2011) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1225, pp. 72-82; Damasio, A.R., (1999) The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, , New York: Harcourt Brace; Damasio, A.R., (2010) Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain, , New York: Harcourt Brace; Elliott, R., Newman, J.L., Longe, O.A., Deakin, J.F., Differential response patterns in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex to financial reward in humans: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study (2003) Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 303-307; Esslen, M., Metzler, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Jancke, L., Pre-reflective and reflective self-reference: A spatiotemporal EEG analysis (2008) Neuroimage, 42, pp. 437-449; Flagan, T., Beer, J.S., Three ways in which midline regions contribute to self-evaluation (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 450; Fossati, P., Hevenor, S.J., Graham, S.J., Grady, C., Keightley, M.L., Craik, F., Mayberg, H., In search of the emotional self: An fMRI study using positive and negative emotional words (2003) American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, pp. 1938-1945; Gallagher, I.I., Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science (2000) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, pp. 14-21; Goodkind, M.S., Sollberger, M., Gyurak, A., Rosen, H.J., Rankin, K.P., Miller, B., Levenson, R., Tracking emotional valence: The role of the orbito-frontal cortex (2012) Human Brain Mapping, 33, pp. 753-762; Greenwald, A.G., Farnham, S.D., Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept (2000) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, pp. 1022-1038; Grimm, S., Schmidt, C.F., Bermpohl, F., Heinzel, A., Dahlem, Y., Wyss, M., Hell, D., Northoff, G., Segregated neural representation of distinct emotion dimensions in the prefrontal cortex-an fMRI study (2006) Neuroimage, 30, pp. 325-340; Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., Northoff, G., Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnonnalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30, pp. 2617-2627; Groenewold, N.A., Opmeer, E.M., De Jonge, P., Aleman, A., Costafreda, S.G., Emotional valence modulates brain functional abnormalities in depression: Evidence from a meta-analysis of fMRI studies (2012) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, pp. 152-163; Gusnard, D.A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G.L., Raichle, M.E., Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, pp. 4259-1264; Heatherton, T.F., Neuroscience of self and self-regulation (2011) Annual Review of Psychology, 62, pp. 363-390; Heinzel, A., Bermpohl, F., Niese, R., Pfennig, A., Pascual-Leone, A., Schlaug, G., Northoff, G., How do we modulate our emotions? Parametric fMRI reveals cortical midline structures as regions specifically involved in the processing of emotional valences (2005) Cognitive Brain Research, 25, pp. 348-358; Heinzel, A., Heinzel, T., (2010) The phenomonology of virtual reality and phantom sensations, Studia UBB, pp. 81-96. , Philosophia, LV; Heinzel, A., Schafer, R., Muller, H.W., Schieffer, A., Ingenhag, A., Eickhoff, S.B., Northoff, G., Hautzel, H., Increased activation of the supra-genual anterior cingulate cortex during visual emotional processing in male subjects with high degrees of alexithymia: An event-related fMRI study (2010) Psychotherapy andPsychosomatics, 79, pp. 363-370; Herbert, C., Kissler, J., Junghofer, M., Peyk, P., Rockstroh, B., Processing of emotional adjectives: Evidence from startle EMG and ERPs (2006) Psychophysiology, 43, pp. 197-206; Herbert, C., l{\'i}erbert, B.M., Ethofer, T., Pauli, P., His or mine? The time course of self-other discrimination in emotion processing (2011) Society for Neuroscience, 6, pp. 277-288; Herbert, C., Pauli, P., Herbert, B.M., Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions (2011) Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, pp. 653-661; Keenan, J.P., Wheeler, M., Platek, S.M., Lardi, G., Lassonde, M., Selfface processing in a callosotomy patient (2003) European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, pp. 2391-2395; Knyazev, G.G., EEG correlates of self-referential processing (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 264; Kringelbach, M.L., The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience (2005) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, pp. 691-702; Kringelbach, M.L., O'Doherty, J., Rolls, E.T., Andrews, C., Activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex to a liquid food stimulus is correlated with its subjective pleasantness (2003) Cerebral Cortex, 13, pp. 1064-1071; Lambie, J.A., Marcel, A.J., Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework (2002) Psychological Review, 109, pp. 219-259; Ledoux, J.E., (2002) Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, , New York: Viking; Lewis, P.A., Critchley, H.D., Rotshtein, P., Dolan, R.J., Neural correlates of processing valence and arousal in affective words (2007) Cerebral Cortex, 17, pp. 742-748; McCloskey, M.S., Phan, K.L., Coccaro, E.F., Neuroimaging and personality disorders (2005) Current Psychiatry Reports, 7, pp. 65-72; McKiernan, K.A., D'Angelo, B.R., Kaufman, J.N., Binder, J.R., Interrupting the 'stream of consciousness': An fMRI investigation (2006) Neuroimage, 29, pp. 1185-1191; Moran, J.M., Macrae, C.N., Heatherton, T.F., Wyland, C.L., Kelley, W.M., Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self (2006) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, pp. 1586-1594; Mu, Y., Han, S., Neural oscillations involved in self-referential processing (2010) Neuroimage, 53, pp. 757-768; N'diaye, K., Sander, D., Vuilleumier, P., Self-relevance processing in the human amygdala: Gaze direction, facial expression, and emotion intensity (2009) Emotion, 9, pp. 798-806; Nagel, T., What is it like to be a bat? (1974) Philosophical Review, 83, pp. 435-450; Northoff, G., (2004) Philosophy of the Brain: The Brain Problem, , Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Northoff, G., From emotions to consciousness-a neuro-phenomenal and neuro-relational approach (2012) Frontiers in Psychology, 3, p. 303; Northoff, G., (2012) Unlocking the Brain. Volume II: Consciousness, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F., Cortical midline structures and the self (2004) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, pp. 102-107; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., First-person neuroscience: A new methodological approach for linking mental and neuronal states (2006) Philosophy, Ethics & Humanities in Medicine, 1; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., De Greek, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., Panksepp, J., Self-referential processing in our brain-a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self (2006) Neuroimage, 31, pp. 440-457; Ochsner, K.N., Knierim, K., Ludlow, D.H., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., Glover, G., Mackey, S.C., Reflecting upon feelings: An fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other (2004) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, pp. 1746-1772; Ochsner, K.N., Beer, J.S., Robertson, E.R., Cooper, J.C., Gabrieli, J.D., Kihsltrom, J.F., D'Esposito, M., The neural correlates of direct and reflected self-knowledge (2005) Neuroimage, 28, pp. 797-814; Panksepp, J., (1998) Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animals Emotions, , New York: Oxford University Press; Panksepp, J., Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans (2005) Consciousness and Cognition, 14, pp. 30-80; Phan, K.L., Wager, T., Taylor, S.F., Liberzon, I., Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: A meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI (2002) Neuroimage, 16, pp. 331-348; Phan, K.L., Taylor, S.F., Welsh, R.C., Flo, S.F.I., Britton, J.C., Liberzon, I., Neural correlates of individual ratings of emotional salience: A trial-related fMRI study (2004) Neuroimage, 21, pp. 768-780; Phillips, M.L., Drevets, W.C., Rauch, S.L., Lane, R., Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implications for major psychiatric disorders (2003) Biological Psychiatry, 54, pp. 515-528; Raic{\'i}ile, M.E., Macleod, A.M., Snyder, A.Z., Powers, W.J., Gusnard, D.A., Shulman, G.L., A default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, pp. 676-682; Rimes, K.A., Watkins, E., The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression (2005) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, pp. 1673-1681; Rolls, E.T., (2005) Emotion Explained, , New York: Oxford University Press; Russell, J.A., Barrett, L.F., Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant (1999) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, pp. 805-819; Scherer, K.R., Emotion as a process: Function, origin, and regulation (1982) Social Science Information, 21, pp. 550-570; Scherer, K.R., What are emotions? And how can they be measured? (2005) Social Science Information, 44, pp. 695-729; Shi, Z., Zhou, A., Liu, P., Zhang, P., Han, W., An EEG study on the effect of self-relevant possessive pronoun: Self-referential content and first-person perspective (2011) Neuroscience Letters, 494, pp. 174-179; Small, D.M., Gregory, M.D., Mak, Y.E., Gitelman, D., Mesulam, M.M., Parrish, T., Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation (2003) Neuron, 39, pp. 701-711; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Kelley, W.M., Funnell, M.G., Gazzaniga, M.S., Macrae, C.N., Mike or me? Self-recognition in a split-brain patient (2002) Nature Neuroscience, 5, pp. 841-842; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Macrae, C.N., Kelley, W.M., Gazzaniga, M.S., Out of contact, out of mind: The distributed nature of the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 65-78; Varela, F., Neurophenomenology: A methodological remedy for the hard problem (1996) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3 (4), pp. 330-349; Varela, F., Shear, J., First-person methodologies: What, why, how? (1999) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (2-3), pp. 1-14; Zhou, {\`A}., Shi, Z., Zhang, P., Liu, P., Han, W., Wu, H., Li, Q., Xia, R., An ERP study on the effect of self-relevant possessive pronoun (2010) Neuroscience Letters, 480, pp. 162-166",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "30--48",
journal = "Journal of Consciousness Studies",
issn = "1355-8250",
publisher = "Imprint Academic",
number = "9-10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relationship of self-relatedness and emotional processing

AU - Heinzel, Alexander

AU - Northoff, Georg Franz Josef

N1 - Export Date: 11 May 2016 Correspondence Address: Heinzel, A.; Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, Germany; email: aheinzel@ukaachen.de References: Aftanas, L.I., Reva, N.V., Savotina, L.N., Makhnev, V.P., Neurophysio-logical correlates of induced discrete emotions in humans: An individually oriented analysis (2006) Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 36, pp. 119-130; Anderson, A.K., Christoff, K., Stappen, I., Panitz, D., Ghahremani, D.G., Glover, G., Gabrieli, J.D., Sobel, N., Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction (2003) Nature Neuroscience, 6, pp. 196-202; Beer, J.S., This time with motivation: The implications of social neuroscience for research on motivated self-and other-perccption (2012) Motivation and Emotion, 36, pp. 38-45; Colombetti, G., Appraising valence (2005) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (8-10), pp. 103-126; Craig, A.D., How do you feel-now? The anterior insula and human awareness (2009) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, pp. 59-70; Craig, A.D., The sentient self (2010) Brain Structure and Function, 214, pp. 563-577; Craig, A.D., Significance of the insula for the evolution of human awareness of feelings from the body (2011) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1225, pp. 72-82; Damasio, A.R., (1999) The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, , New York: Harcourt Brace; Damasio, A.R., (2010) Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain, , New York: Harcourt Brace; Elliott, R., Newman, J.L., Longe, O.A., Deakin, J.F., Differential response patterns in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex to financial reward in humans: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study (2003) Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 303-307; Esslen, M., Metzler, S., Pascual-Marqui, R., Jancke, L., Pre-reflective and reflective self-reference: A spatiotemporal EEG analysis (2008) Neuroimage, 42, pp. 437-449; Flagan, T., Beer, J.S., Three ways in which midline regions contribute to self-evaluation (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 450; Fossati, P., Hevenor, S.J., Graham, S.J., Grady, C., Keightley, M.L., Craik, F., Mayberg, H., In search of the emotional self: An fMRI study using positive and negative emotional words (2003) American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, pp. 1938-1945; Gallagher, I.I., Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science (2000) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, pp. 14-21; Goodkind, M.S., Sollberger, M., Gyurak, A., Rosen, H.J., Rankin, K.P., Miller, B., Levenson, R., Tracking emotional valence: The role of the orbito-frontal cortex (2012) Human Brain Mapping, 33, pp. 753-762; Greenwald, A.G., Farnham, S.D., Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept (2000) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, pp. 1022-1038; Grimm, S., Schmidt, C.F., Bermpohl, F., Heinzel, A., Dahlem, Y., Wyss, M., Hell, D., Northoff, G., Segregated neural representation of distinct emotion dimensions in the prefrontal cortex-an fMRI study (2006) Neuroimage, 30, pp. 325-340; Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., Northoff, G., Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnonnalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures (2009) Human Brain Mapping, 30, pp. 2617-2627; Groenewold, N.A., Opmeer, E.M., De Jonge, P., Aleman, A., Costafreda, S.G., Emotional valence modulates brain functional abnormalities in depression: Evidence from a meta-analysis of fMRI studies (2012) Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, pp. 152-163; Gusnard, D.A., Akbudak, E., Shulman, G.L., Raichle, M.E., Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, pp. 4259-1264; Heatherton, T.F., Neuroscience of self and self-regulation (2011) Annual Review of Psychology, 62, pp. 363-390; Heinzel, A., Bermpohl, F., Niese, R., Pfennig, A., Pascual-Leone, A., Schlaug, G., Northoff, G., How do we modulate our emotions? Parametric fMRI reveals cortical midline structures as regions specifically involved in the processing of emotional valences (2005) Cognitive Brain Research, 25, pp. 348-358; Heinzel, A., Heinzel, T., (2010) The phenomonology of virtual reality and phantom sensations, Studia UBB, pp. 81-96. , Philosophia, LV; Heinzel, A., Schafer, R., Muller, H.W., Schieffer, A., Ingenhag, A., Eickhoff, S.B., Northoff, G., Hautzel, H., Increased activation of the supra-genual anterior cingulate cortex during visual emotional processing in male subjects with high degrees of alexithymia: An event-related fMRI study (2010) Psychotherapy andPsychosomatics, 79, pp. 363-370; Herbert, C., Kissler, J., Junghofer, M., Peyk, P., Rockstroh, B., Processing of emotional adjectives: Evidence from startle EMG and ERPs (2006) Psychophysiology, 43, pp. 197-206; Herbert, C., líerbert, B.M., Ethofer, T., Pauli, P., His or mine? The time course of self-other discrimination in emotion processing (2011) Society for Neuroscience, 6, pp. 277-288; Herbert, C., Pauli, P., Herbert, B.M., Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions (2011) Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, pp. 653-661; Keenan, J.P., Wheeler, M., Platek, S.M., Lardi, G., Lassonde, M., Selfface processing in a callosotomy patient (2003) European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, pp. 2391-2395; Knyazev, G.G., EEG correlates of self-referential processing (2013) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, p. 264; Kringelbach, M.L., The human orbitofrontal cortex: Linking reward to hedonic experience (2005) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, pp. 691-702; Kringelbach, M.L., O'Doherty, J., Rolls, E.T., Andrews, C., Activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex to a liquid food stimulus is correlated with its subjective pleasantness (2003) Cerebral Cortex, 13, pp. 1064-1071; Lambie, J.A., Marcel, A.J., Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework (2002) Psychological Review, 109, pp. 219-259; Ledoux, J.E., (2002) Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, , New York: Viking; Lewis, P.A., Critchley, H.D., Rotshtein, P., Dolan, R.J., Neural correlates of processing valence and arousal in affective words (2007) Cerebral Cortex, 17, pp. 742-748; McCloskey, M.S., Phan, K.L., Coccaro, E.F., Neuroimaging and personality disorders (2005) Current Psychiatry Reports, 7, pp. 65-72; McKiernan, K.A., D'Angelo, B.R., Kaufman, J.N., Binder, J.R., Interrupting the 'stream of consciousness': An fMRI investigation (2006) Neuroimage, 29, pp. 1185-1191; Moran, J.M., Macrae, C.N., Heatherton, T.F., Wyland, C.L., Kelley, W.M., Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self (2006) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, pp. 1586-1594; Mu, Y., Han, S., Neural oscillations involved in self-referential processing (2010) Neuroimage, 53, pp. 757-768; N'diaye, K., Sander, D., Vuilleumier, P., Self-relevance processing in the human amygdala: Gaze direction, facial expression, and emotion intensity (2009) Emotion, 9, pp. 798-806; Nagel, T., What is it like to be a bat? (1974) Philosophical Review, 83, pp. 435-450; Northoff, G., (2004) Philosophy of the Brain: The Brain Problem, , Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Northoff, G., From emotions to consciousness-a neuro-phenomenal and neuro-relational approach (2012) Frontiers in Psychology, 3, p. 303; Northoff, G., (2012) Unlocking the Brain. Volume II: Consciousness, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F., Cortical midline structures and the self (2004) Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, pp. 102-107; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., First-person neuroscience: A new methodological approach for linking mental and neuronal states (2006) Philosophy, Ethics & Humanities in Medicine, 1; Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., De Greek, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., Panksepp, J., Self-referential processing in our brain-a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self (2006) Neuroimage, 31, pp. 440-457; Ochsner, K.N., Knierim, K., Ludlow, D.H., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., Glover, G., Mackey, S.C., Reflecting upon feelings: An fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other (2004) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, pp. 1746-1772; Ochsner, K.N., Beer, J.S., Robertson, E.R., Cooper, J.C., Gabrieli, J.D., Kihsltrom, J.F., D'Esposito, M., The neural correlates of direct and reflected self-knowledge (2005) Neuroimage, 28, pp. 797-814; Panksepp, J., (1998) Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animals Emotions, , New York: Oxford University Press; Panksepp, J., Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans (2005) Consciousness and Cognition, 14, pp. 30-80; Phan, K.L., Wager, T., Taylor, S.F., Liberzon, I., Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: A meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI (2002) Neuroimage, 16, pp. 331-348; Phan, K.L., Taylor, S.F., Welsh, R.C., Flo, S.F.I., Britton, J.C., Liberzon, I., Neural correlates of individual ratings of emotional salience: A trial-related fMRI study (2004) Neuroimage, 21, pp. 768-780; Phillips, M.L., Drevets, W.C., Rauch, S.L., Lane, R., Neurobiology of emotion perception II: Implications for major psychiatric disorders (2003) Biological Psychiatry, 54, pp. 515-528; Raicíile, M.E., Macleod, A.M., Snyder, A.Z., Powers, W.J., Gusnard, D.A., Shulman, G.L., A default mode of brain function (2001) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, pp. 676-682; Rimes, K.A., Watkins, E., The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression (2005) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, pp. 1673-1681; Rolls, E.T., (2005) Emotion Explained, , New York: Oxford University Press; Russell, J.A., Barrett, L.F., Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant (1999) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, pp. 805-819; Scherer, K.R., Emotion as a process: Function, origin, and regulation (1982) Social Science Information, 21, pp. 550-570; Scherer, K.R., What are emotions? And how can they be measured? (2005) Social Science Information, 44, pp. 695-729; Shi, Z., Zhou, A., Liu, P., Zhang, P., Han, W., An EEG study on the effect of self-relevant possessive pronoun: Self-referential content and first-person perspective (2011) Neuroscience Letters, 494, pp. 174-179; Small, D.M., Gregory, M.D., Mak, Y.E., Gitelman, D., Mesulam, M.M., Parrish, T., Dissociation of neural representation of intensity and affective valuation in human gustation (2003) Neuron, 39, pp. 701-711; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Kelley, W.M., Funnell, M.G., Gazzaniga, M.S., Macrae, C.N., Mike or me? Self-recognition in a split-brain patient (2002) Nature Neuroscience, 5, pp. 841-842; Turk, D.J., Heatherton, T.F., Macrae, C.N., Kelley, W.M., Gazzaniga, M.S., Out of contact, out of mind: The distributed nature of the self (2003) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1001, pp. 65-78; Varela, F., Neurophenomenology: A methodological remedy for the hard problem (1996) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3 (4), pp. 330-349; Varela, F., Shear, J., First-person methodologies: What, why, how? (1999) Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (2-3), pp. 1-14; Zhou, À., Shi, Z., Zhang, P., Liu, P., Han, W., Wu, H., Li, Q., Xia, R., An ERP study on the effect of self-relevant possessive pronoun (2010) Neuroscience Letters, 480, pp. 162-166

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Self and emotion have been discussed separately in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience whereas their relationship has been rather neglected. We here suggest that they are intrinsically linked by demonstrating that self-relatedness accounts for the subjectivity of emotions, and emotional valence reflects affectivity of the self. Based on functional imaging studies, we discuss different possible spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS) that allow us to link and, at the same time, to distinguish self-relatedness and emotional valence. We conclude that the aCMS may be crucial in affectively colouring our self and associating our emotional feelings with the self. © Imprint Academic, 2014.

AB - Self and emotion have been discussed separately in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience whereas their relationship has been rather neglected. We here suggest that they are intrinsically linked by demonstrating that self-relatedness accounts for the subjectivity of emotions, and emotional valence reflects affectivity of the self. Based on functional imaging studies, we discuss different possible spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity in anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS) that allow us to link and, at the same time, to distinguish self-relatedness and emotional valence. We conclude that the aCMS may be crucial in affectively colouring our self and associating our emotional feelings with the self. © Imprint Academic, 2014.

KW - Anterior cortical midline structures (aCMS)

KW - Emotional experience

KW - Emotions

KW - Self

KW - Self-related processing

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 30

EP - 48

JO - Journal of Consciousness Studies

JF - Journal of Consciousness Studies

SN - 1355-8250

IS - 9-10

ER -