The potential of the three-dimensional printed titanium mesh implant for cranioplasty surgery applications: Biomechanical behaviors and surface properties

Min Tsan Huang, Po Kai Juan, Shyuan Yow Chen, Chia Jen Wu, Shih Cheng Wen, Yung Chieh Cho, Mao Suan Huang, Hsin Hua Chou, Keng Liang Ou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviors of the pre-shaped titanium (PS-Ti) cranial mesh implants with different pore structures and thicknesses as well as the surface characteristics of the three-dimensional printed Ti (3DP-Ti) cranial mesh implant. The biomechanical behaviors of the PS-Ti cranial mesh implants with different pore structures (square, circular and triangular) and thicknesses (0.2, 0.6 and 1 mm) were simulated using finite element analysis. Surface properties of the 3DP-Ti cranial mesh implant were performed by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and static contact angle goniometer. It was found that the stress distribution and peak Von Mises stress of the PS-Ti cranial mesh implants significantly decreased at the thickness of 1 mm. The PS-Ti mesh implant with the circular pore structure created a relatively lower Von Mises stress on the bone defect area as compared to the PS-Ti mesh implant with the triangular pore structure and square pore structure. Moreover, the spherical-like Ti particle structures were formed on the surface of the 3DP-Ti cranial mesh implant. The microstructure of the 3DP-Ti mesh implant was composed of α and rutile-TiO2 phases. For wettability evaluation, the 3DP-Ti cranial mesh implant possessed a good hydrophilicity surface. Therefore, the 3DP-Ti cranial mesh implant with the thickness of 1 mm and circular pore structure is a promising biomaterial for cranioplasty surgery applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-419
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2019



  • Biomechanical behavior
  • Finite element analysis
  • Microstructure
  • Three-dimensional printing
  • Ti cranial mesh implant
  • Wettability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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