The mitochondrial genome of the gymnosperm Cycas taitungensis contains a novel family of short interspersed elements, Bpu sequences, and abundant RNA editing sites

Shu Miaw Chaw, Arthur Chun-Chieh Shih, Daryi Wang, Yu Wei Wu, Shu Mei Liu, The Yuan Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

89 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mtDNA of Cycas taitungensis is a circular molecule of 414,903 bp, making it 2- to 6-fold larger than the known mtDNAs of charophytes and bryophytes, but similar to the average of 7 elucidated angiosperm mtDNAs. It is characterized by abundant RNA editing sites (1,084), more than twice the number found in the angiosperm mtDNAs. The A + T content of Cycas mtDNA is 53.1%, the lowest among known land plants. About 5% of the Cycas mtDNA is composed of a novel family of mobile elements, which we designated as "Bpu sequences." They share a consensus sequence of 36 bp with 2 terminal direct repeats (AAGG) and a recognition site for the Bpu 10I restriction endonuclease (CCTGAAGC). Comparison of the Cycas mtDNA with other plant mtDNAs revealed many new insights into the biology and evolution of land plant mtDNAs. For example, the noncoding sequences in mtDNAs have drastically expanded as land plants have evolved, with abrupt increases appearing in the bryophytes, and then in the seed plants. As a result, the genomic organizations of seed plant mtDNAs are much less compact than in other plants. Also, the Cycas mtDNA appears to have been exempted from the frequent gene loss observed in angiosperm mtDNAs. Similar to the angiosperms, the 3 Cycas genes nad1, nad2, and nad5 are disrupted by 5 group II intron squences, which have brought the genes into trans-splicing arrangements. The evolutionary origin and invasion/duplication mechanism of the Bpu sequences in Cycas mtDNA are hypothesized and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-615
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Biology and Evolution
Volume25
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cycas
Gymnosperms
RNA Editing
RNA editing
Mitochondrial Genome
gymnosperm
Mitochondrial DNA
RNA
genome
Genes
Angiosperms
mitochondrial DNA
Embryophyta
angiosperm
Angiospermae
embryophytes
Bryophyta
bryophyte
Spermatophytina
Seed

Keywords

  • Cycas
  • Mitochondrial genome
  • Mobile elements
  • Repeats
  • RNA editing sites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

The mitochondrial genome of the gymnosperm Cycas taitungensis contains a novel family of short interspersed elements, Bpu sequences, and abundant RNA editing sites. / Chaw, Shu Miaw; Chun-Chieh Shih, Arthur; Wang, Daryi; Wu, Yu Wei; Liu, Shu Mei; Chou, The Yuan.

In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 25, No. 3, 03.2008, p. 603-615.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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