The Influences of Place Marketing on Tourists' Perceived Benefits and Visiting Intentions: Test the Moderating Effect of Word-of-Mouth

Mei-Li Chen, (Yen-Kuang Lin, Brock T. Jensen, David S. Hydock, Reid Hayward, Chia-Ying Lien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A highly effective antineoplastic agent, Doxorubicin (DOX), is associated with dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Some evidence indicates that exercise preconditioning can have cardioprotective effects against DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of exercise preconditioning on DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction using discriminant analysis. With this statistical procedure, we used data from previously completed studies to determine group classification and determine which cardiac function variable is the best predictor of cardiac function. METHOD: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 week) were randomly assigned to one of three primary groups: sedentary (SED), wheel running (WR) or treadmill (TM). Following 10 weeks of exercise preconditioning, exercise groups received a bolus i.p. injection of 10 mg/kg of DOX (TM+DOX, WR+DOX). At the same time, the SED group received a bolus injection of either 10 mg/kg of DOX (SED+DOX) or an equivalent volume of saline (SED+SAL). Left ventricle function was assessed ex vivo using an isolated working heart model at 5 days, 10 days, or 28 days post injection. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine if a significant difference existed between the five cardiac function variables (ESP, DDP, LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin). Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine which cardiac function variable was the best predictor of cardiac function. Descriptive discriminant analysis was used as a linear classification tool to categorize control and experimental groups. RESULTS: A significant difference existed across the 5 cardiac function variables F(12,344.24)=8.73, P<0.001. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed LVDP was the most indicative cardiac function variable remaining in the model (R2 =0.39, F=30.34, P<0.0001). Five days post DOX treatment, 92% of TM+DOX and 70% of WR+DOX were categorized as SED+SAL. Ten days post DOX exposure, 91% of TM+DOX and 86% of WR+DOX were categorized as SED+SAL. Furthermore, 88% of TM+DOX and 93% of WR+DOX 28 days post DOX treatment were categorized as SED+SAL. CONCLUSION: LVDP appears to be the most indicative ex vivo parameter of cardiac function. The cardiac function of the majority of aerobically trained rats treated with DOX was categorized as SED+SAL up to 28 days post DOX treatment.
Translated title of the contribution使用區別分析模式來評估運動預處理保護心臟對抗阿黴素對心臟的傷害
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-27
Number of pages11
Journal運動與遊憩研究
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017

Keywords

  • Doxorubicin (DOX)
  • Cardiotoxicity
  • Exercise
  • 阿黴素
  • 心毒素
  • 運動

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