Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is associated with the presence of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD), but its effect on a severe LEAD prognosis remains unclear. We investigated the association between Afib and clinical outcomes. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive severe LEAD patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2018. Patients were divided according to the history of any type of Afib and followed for at least one year. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were cardiac-related mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The study included 222 patients aged 74 ± 11 years (54% male), and 12.6% had acute limb ischemia. The Afib group had significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality (42.9% vs. 20.1%, p = 0.014) and MACEs (32.1% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.028) than the non-Afib group. Afib was independently associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 2.153, 95% CI: 1.084–4.276, p = 0.029) and MACEs (adjusted HR: 2.338, 95% CI: 1.054–2.188, p = 0.037). The other factors associated with all-cause mortality included acute limb ischemia (adjusted HR: 2.898, 95% CI: 1.504–5.586, p = 0.001), Rutherford classification, and heart rate. Afib was significantly associated with increased risks of one-year all-cause mortality and MACEs in patients with severe LEAD. Future studies should investigate whether oral anticoagulants benefit these patients.
- atrial fibrillation
- lower extremity arterial disease
- percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
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