The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty

Jia Woei Hou, Ching Ling Lin, Yen An Tsai, Chia Huang Chang, Kai Wei Liao, Ching Jung Yu, Winnie Yang, Ming Jun Lee, Po Chin Huang, Chien Wen Sun, Yin Han Wang, Fang Ru Lin, Wen Chiu Wu, Meng Chih Lee, Wen Harn Pan, Bai Hsiun Chen, Ming Tsang Wu, Chu Chih Chen, Shu Li Wang, Ching Chang LeeChao Agnes Hsiung, Mei Lien Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. Objective: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. Methods: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. Results: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20. μg/kg. bw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50. μg/kg. bw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. Conclusions: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-615
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume218
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Body Size
Puberty
Diethylhexyl Phthalate
Esters
Abdominal Obesity
Urine
Endocrine Disruptors
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Skinfold Thickness
phthalic acid
nonylphenol
Pediatric Obesity
Waist Circumference
Taiwan
Hip
Obesity
Weights and Measures
Food
Population
1-(2-(dodecyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidine hydrochloride

Keywords

  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  • Nonylphenol
  • Obesity
  • Phthalic acid esters
  • Pubertal maturity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty. / Hou, Jia Woei; Lin, Ching Ling; Tsai, Yen An; Chang, Chia Huang; Liao, Kai Wei; Yu, Ching Jung; Yang, Winnie; Lee, Ming Jun; Huang, Po Chin; Sun, Chien Wen; Wang, Yin Han; Lin, Fang Ru; Wu, Wen Chiu; Lee, Meng Chih; Pan, Wen Harn; Chen, Bai Hsiun; Wu, Ming Tsang; Chen, Chu Chih; Wang, Shu Li; Lee, Ching Chang; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Chen, Mei Lien.

In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 218, No. 7, 01.10.2015, p. 603-615.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hou, JW, Lin, CL, Tsai, YA, Chang, CH, Liao, KW, Yu, CJ, Yang, W, Lee, MJ, Huang, PC, Sun, CW, Wang, YH, Lin, FR, Wu, WC, Lee, MC, Pan, WH, Chen, BH, Wu, MT, Chen, CC, Wang, SL, Lee, CC, Hsiung, CA & Chen, ML 2015, 'The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty', International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 218, no. 7, pp. 603-615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.06.004
Hou, Jia Woei ; Lin, Ching Ling ; Tsai, Yen An ; Chang, Chia Huang ; Liao, Kai Wei ; Yu, Ching Jung ; Yang, Winnie ; Lee, Ming Jun ; Huang, Po Chin ; Sun, Chien Wen ; Wang, Yin Han ; Lin, Fang Ru ; Wu, Wen Chiu ; Lee, Meng Chih ; Pan, Wen Harn ; Chen, Bai Hsiun ; Wu, Ming Tsang ; Chen, Chu Chih ; Wang, Shu Li ; Lee, Ching Chang ; Hsiung, Chao Agnes ; Chen, Mei Lien. / The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty. In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2015 ; Vol. 218, No. 7. pp. 603-615.
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abstract = "Background: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. Objective: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. Methods: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. Results: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20. μg/kg. bw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50. μg/kg. bw/day) by 3.4{\%} and 0.4{\%}, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. Conclusions: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.",
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T1 - The effects of phthalate and nonylphenol exposure on body size and secondary sexual characteristics during puberty

AU - Hou, Jia Woei

AU - Lin, Ching Ling

AU - Tsai, Yen An

AU - Chang, Chia Huang

AU - Liao, Kai Wei

AU - Yu, Ching Jung

AU - Yang, Winnie

AU - Lee, Ming Jun

AU - Huang, Po Chin

AU - Sun, Chien Wen

AU - Wang, Yin Han

AU - Lin, Fang Ru

AU - Wu, Wen Chiu

AU - Lee, Meng Chih

AU - Pan, Wen Harn

AU - Chen, Bai Hsiun

AU - Wu, Ming Tsang

AU - Chen, Chu Chih

AU - Wang, Shu Li

AU - Lee, Ching Chang

AU - Hsiung, Chao Agnes

AU - Chen, Mei Lien

PY - 2015/10/1

Y1 - 2015/10/1

N2 - Background: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. Objective: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. Methods: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. Results: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20. μg/kg. bw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50. μg/kg. bw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. Conclusions: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

AB - Background: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. Objective: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. Methods: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. Results: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20. μg/kg. bw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50. μg/kg. bw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. Conclusions: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

KW - Endocrine-disrupting chemicals

KW - Nonylphenol

KW - Obesity

KW - Phthalic acid esters

KW - Pubertal maturity

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