Air pollution is a global environmental problem and causes numerous adverse health effects. Recent studies indicated that prenatal and perinatal air pollution exposure decreased the neurodevelopment of children. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate the effects of prenatal and early childhood exposure to air pollution and land use characteristics near residence on neurodevelopment at six months old (adjusted age) among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm children in the Greater Taipei area. We used geographic information system to estimate air pollution concentrations and land use types around the study children's residences during pregnancy and in the first six months of life. Neurodevelopment of the study children were evaluated using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III). Other important information of the children were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records including prenatal and postnatal residential addresses, basic social demographic characteristics, pollutants at home, etc. We used multiple regressions to examine the relationships of interest. According to the results of regression analyses, several air pollutants (O_3, PM_(10), NO, and NO_2) had adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment. Among different exposure periods, air pollutant exposure during pregnancy had the most significant impact on children's neurodevelopment. In addition, children's neurodevelopment was negatively associated with area of freeways near residence, and positively related to living near parks and greens. Based on the results of this study, reduction of air pollution emission and increase of greenbelts in the urban areas can promote the neurodevelopment of VLBW preterm children.