PURPOSE: The osseointegration of titanium dental implants is essential for successful therapy, and this is strongly affected by the surface chemistry and roughness. In this study, using electrochemical anodization after sand blasting, and acid etching of Ti surface (SLA), SLA specimens with the high wettability of the thick TiO2 layer (SLAffinity) surface was developed to superimpose the nanoscale topographies on the microscale roughness of SLA surface without greatly altering the surface features. MATERIALS: The surface characteristics of SLAffinity specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The viability and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells (MG63 cells), which were seeded on SLAffinity specimens, were analyzed. RESULTS: Such electrochemically anodized specimens were predominantly composed of bioactive TiO2. The cell culturing tests revealed that the microscale roughness in combination with the nanoscale structures and bioactive properties improved osteoblast viability and differentiation on the SLAffinity surface. CONCLUSION: The favorable biological response of SLAffinity surfaces to MG63 osteoblast-like cells suggested that electrochemical anodization after SLA treatments is a potential procedure for better osseointegration in vivo. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.