The associations among organophosphate pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonases in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Chia Huang Chang, Ching Jung Yu, Jung Chieh Du, Hsien Chih Chiou, Jia Woei Hou, Winnie Yang, Chian Feng Chen, Hsin Chang Chen, Ying Sheue Chen, Betau Hwang, Mei Lien Chen

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This study will help to clarify the relationship between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and paraoxonases (PON) polymorphisms to further characterize the gene-environment interaction. This case-control study enrolled 85 children with ADHD and 96 control subjects. Urinary OP levels were analyzed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-Gua), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S) were calculated to evaluate the additive interactions between OP exposure and PON genetic polymorphism on ADHD. A causal mediation analysis was conducted to clarify the mediation effects of oxidative stress due to OP exposure on ADHD. Children with ADHD had significantly higher DMP (238.95 nmol/g cre. vs. 164.83 nmol/g cre., p value = 0.01) and HNE-MA (30.75 μg/g cre. vs. 18.41 μg/g cre., p value<0.01) concentrations than control children. Children who carried the PON1 GG genotype (rs705379) had low urinary DMP levels, and the level increased with increasing numbers of allele variants. The risk for developing ADHD reached 2.06-fold (OR = 2.06, 95% CI:1.23–3.44) and 1.43-fold (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.04–2.03) when the DMP and HNE-MA levels increased by 1 natural log of the concentration, respectively. The estimated AP value was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.17–1.15), indicating that 66% of ADHD cases in DMP-exposed children with the PON1 CT/TT (rs705381) genotype were due to gene-environment interactions. No significant mediation of HNE-MA was observed between DMP exposure and the risk of ADHD. The estimated proportion mediated was only 7.0% (95% CI: −0.08-0.46). This research suggests the role of OP exposure in the occurrence of ADHD after adjusting for covariates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number145604
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2021


  • Additive interaction
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Organophosphate pesticides
  • Oxidative stress
  • Paraoxonases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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