The Antibacterial Efficacy and In Vivo Toxicity of Sodium Hypochlorite and Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Endodontic Irrigating Solutions

Sung-Chih Hsieh, Nai-Chia Teng, Chia Chun Chu, You-Tai Chu, Chung-He Chen, Liang-Yu Chang, Chieh-Yun Hsu, Ching-Shuan Huang, Grace Ying-Wen Hsiao, Jen-Chang Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans and in vivo toxicity using embryonic zebrafish assays of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (containing hypochlorous acid (HOCl))-based root canal irrigating solutions.

METHODOLOGY: Using 100 μL microbial count of 1 × 108 cfu/mL Enterococcus faecalis to mix with each 10 mL specimen of NaOCl or HOCl for designed time periods. The above protocol was also repeated for Streptococcus mutans. The concentration of viable microorganisms was estimated based on each standardized inoculum using a plate-count method. Zebrafish embryo assays were used to evaluate acute toxicity.

RESULTS: All the HOCl or NaOCl treatment groups showed > 99.9% antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. Zebrafish embryos showed almost complete dissolution in 1.5% NaOCl within 5 min. Both survival rates after being treated with 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl for 0.5 min or 1.0 min were similar to that of E3 medium.

CONCLUSIONS: Both NaOCl and HOCl revealed similar antibacterial efficacy (> 99.9%) against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. While 1.5% NaOCl fully dissolved the Zebrafish embryos, both 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl showed little in vivo toxicity, affirming its potential as an alternative irrigation solution for vital pulp therapy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 7 2020

Fingerprint

Hypochlorous Acid
Sodium Hypochlorite
Toxicity
Sodium
Acids
Water
Assays
Canals
Irrigation
Microorganisms
Pulp
Dissolution

Cite this

The Antibacterial Efficacy and In Vivo Toxicity of Sodium Hypochlorite and Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Endodontic Irrigating Solutions. / Hsieh, Sung-Chih; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chu, Chia Chun; Chu, You-Tai; Chen, Chung-He; Chang, Liang-Yu; Hsu, Chieh-Yun; Huang, Ching-Shuan; Hsiao, Grace Ying-Wen; Yang, Jen-Chang.

In: Materials, Vol. 13, No. 2, 07.01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9f0fca45d7f6492b822f7737f4948578,
title = "The Antibacterial Efficacy and In Vivo Toxicity of Sodium Hypochlorite and Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Endodontic Irrigating Solutions",
abstract = "The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans and in vivo toxicity using embryonic zebrafish assays of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (containing hypochlorous acid (HOCl))-based root canal irrigating solutions.METHODOLOGY: Using 100 μL microbial count of 1 × 108 cfu/mL Enterococcus faecalis to mix with each 10 mL specimen of NaOCl or HOCl for designed time periods. The above protocol was also repeated for Streptococcus mutans. The concentration of viable microorganisms was estimated based on each standardized inoculum using a plate-count method. Zebrafish embryo assays were used to evaluate acute toxicity.RESULTS: All the HOCl or NaOCl treatment groups showed > 99.9{\%} antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. Zebrafish embryos showed almost complete dissolution in 1.5{\%} NaOCl within 5 min. Both survival rates after being treated with 0.0125{\%} and 0.0250{\%} HOCl for 0.5 min or 1.0 min were similar to that of E3 medium.CONCLUSIONS: Both NaOCl and HOCl revealed similar antibacterial efficacy (> 99.9{\%}) against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. While 1.5{\%} NaOCl fully dissolved the Zebrafish embryos, both 0.0125{\%} and 0.0250{\%} HOCl showed little in vivo toxicity, affirming its potential as an alternative irrigation solution for vital pulp therapy.",
author = "Sung-Chih Hsieh and Nai-Chia Teng and Chu, {Chia Chun} and You-Tai Chu and Chung-He Chen and Liang-Yu Chang and Chieh-Yun Hsu and Ching-Shuan Huang and Hsiao, {Grace Ying-Wen} and Jen-Chang Yang",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "7",
doi = "10.3390/ma13020260",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "Materials",
issn = "1996-1944",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Antibacterial Efficacy and In Vivo Toxicity of Sodium Hypochlorite and Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Endodontic Irrigating Solutions

AU - Hsieh, Sung-Chih

AU - Teng, Nai-Chia

AU - Chu, Chia Chun

AU - Chu, You-Tai

AU - Chen, Chung-He

AU - Chang, Liang-Yu

AU - Hsu, Chieh-Yun

AU - Huang, Ching-Shuan

AU - Hsiao, Grace Ying-Wen

AU - Yang, Jen-Chang

PY - 2020/1/7

Y1 - 2020/1/7

N2 - The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans and in vivo toxicity using embryonic zebrafish assays of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (containing hypochlorous acid (HOCl))-based root canal irrigating solutions.METHODOLOGY: Using 100 μL microbial count of 1 × 108 cfu/mL Enterococcus faecalis to mix with each 10 mL specimen of NaOCl or HOCl for designed time periods. The above protocol was also repeated for Streptococcus mutans. The concentration of viable microorganisms was estimated based on each standardized inoculum using a plate-count method. Zebrafish embryo assays were used to evaluate acute toxicity.RESULTS: All the HOCl or NaOCl treatment groups showed > 99.9% antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. Zebrafish embryos showed almost complete dissolution in 1.5% NaOCl within 5 min. Both survival rates after being treated with 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl for 0.5 min or 1.0 min were similar to that of E3 medium.CONCLUSIONS: Both NaOCl and HOCl revealed similar antibacterial efficacy (> 99.9%) against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. While 1.5% NaOCl fully dissolved the Zebrafish embryos, both 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl showed little in vivo toxicity, affirming its potential as an alternative irrigation solution for vital pulp therapy.

AB - The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans and in vivo toxicity using embryonic zebrafish assays of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (containing hypochlorous acid (HOCl))-based root canal irrigating solutions.METHODOLOGY: Using 100 μL microbial count of 1 × 108 cfu/mL Enterococcus faecalis to mix with each 10 mL specimen of NaOCl or HOCl for designed time periods. The above protocol was also repeated for Streptococcus mutans. The concentration of viable microorganisms was estimated based on each standardized inoculum using a plate-count method. Zebrafish embryo assays were used to evaluate acute toxicity.RESULTS: All the HOCl or NaOCl treatment groups showed > 99.9% antibacterial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. Zebrafish embryos showed almost complete dissolution in 1.5% NaOCl within 5 min. Both survival rates after being treated with 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl for 0.5 min or 1.0 min were similar to that of E3 medium.CONCLUSIONS: Both NaOCl and HOCl revealed similar antibacterial efficacy (> 99.9%) against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. While 1.5% NaOCl fully dissolved the Zebrafish embryos, both 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl showed little in vivo toxicity, affirming its potential as an alternative irrigation solution for vital pulp therapy.

U2 - 10.3390/ma13020260

DO - 10.3390/ma13020260

M3 - Article

C2 - 31936078

VL - 13

JO - Materials

JF - Materials

SN - 1996-1944

IS - 2

ER -