Refracture of cemented vertebrae occurs commonly after vertebroplasty (VP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). It can result in severe pain or neurological deficit, but no preventive medication is available. Owing to the bone anabolic benefits of teriparatide (TP), this study was aimed to compare the outcomes of cemented vertebrae with TP to those without TP. Patients who received VP for OVCF with at least 1 year follow-up were included. The anterior body height (ABH) and middle body height (MBH) and kyphotic angle (KA) were measured before VP and 1 week and at least 1 year after VP. Refracture was defined as a 15% decrease in ABH or MBH and 8° decrease in KA compared with those at postoperative 1 week. The clinical outcomes were evaluated. 35 VP procedures in 21 patients treated with TP (TP group), and, matched to that, 29 out of 133 patients treated with VP alone (VP group) were included. One year after VP, ABH and MBH were significantly greater, except KA, in the TP group (VP group vs. TP group: KA − 4.97° ± 12.1 vs. −2.85° ± 12.21°, p = 0.462, ABH 1.56 ± 0.48 cm vs. 1.84 ± 0.56 cm, p = 0.027, MBH 1.49 ± 0.39 cm vs. 1.73 ± 0.41 cm, p = 0.017). The refracture rates of KA, ABH, and MBH were significantly lower in the TP group (VP group vs. TP group: KA 42.11% vs.8.57%, p < 0.001; ABH 76.32% vs. 28.57%, p < 0.0001; MBH 76.32% vs. 28.57%, p < 0.0001). In single-level subgroup comparison, TP was associated with better improvement of pain VAS and better radiological outcomes. TP was associated with higher BHs and fewer refractures than VP alone, with comparable clinical outcomes 1 year after VP. TP may be associated with better improvement of pain VAS in those with single-level VP procedure. Higher BH was due to the better maintenance effect of TP.
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