Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: Complications and outcomes

Chun-Chang Li, Ju-Peng Fu, Shun-Cheng Chang, Tim-Mo Chen, Shyi-Gen Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 11 Citations

Abstract

Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
LanguageEnglish
Pages510-515
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Volume69
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Gynecomastia
Lipectomy
Subcutaneous Mastectomy
Therapeutics
Reoperation
Self Report
Skin

Keywords

  • gynecomastia
  • liposuction
  • mastectomy
  • pull-through technique
  • adolescent
  • adult
  • aged
  • article
  • breast reconstruction
  • human
  • male
  • methodology
  • middle aged
  • retrospective study
  • treatment outcome
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Gynecomastia
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mammaplasty
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: Complications and outcomes. / Li, Chun-Chang; Fu, Ju-Peng; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen.

In: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 69, No. 5, 2012, p. 510-515.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Li, Chun-Chang ; Fu, Ju-Peng ; Chang, Shun-Cheng ; Chen, Tim-Mo ; Chen, Shyi-Gen. / Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: Complications and outcomes. In: Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2012 ; Vol. 69, No. 5. pp. 510-515.
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abstract = "Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8{\%}. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia. Copyright {\circledC} 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.",
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author = "Chun-Chang Li and Ju-Peng Fu and Shun-Cheng Chang and Tim-Mo Chen and Shyi-Gen Chen",
note = "被引用次數:3 Export Date: 21 March 2016 CODEN: APCSD 通訊地址: Chen, S.-G.; Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Cheng-Kung Rd, Sec 2, Taipei 114, Taiwan; 電子郵件: miho0402@ndmctsgh.edu.tw 參考文獻: Narula, H.S., Carlson, H.E., Gynecomastia (2007) Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 36 (2), pp. 497-519. , DOI 10.1016/j.ecl.2007.03.013, PII S0889852907000308, Andrology; Nuttall, F.Q., Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men (1979) Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 48 (2), pp. 338-340; Niewoehner, C.B., Nuttall, F.Q., Gynecomastia in a hospitalized male population (1984) American Journal of Medicine, 77 (4), pp. 633-638; Bembo, S.A., Carlson, H.E., Gynecomastia: Its features, and when and how to treat it (2004) Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 71 (6), pp. 511-517; Simon, B.E., Hoffman, S., Kahn, S., Classification and surgical correction of gy-necomastia (1973) Plast Reconstr Surg., 51, pp. 48-56; Webster, J.P., Mastectomy for gynecomastia through a semicircular intra-areolar incision (1946) Ann Surg., 124, pp. 557-575; Benelli, L., A new periareolar mammaplasty: The 'round block' technique (1990) Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 14 (2), pp. 93-100; Hodgson, E.L.B., Fruhstorfer, B.H., Malata, C.M., Ultrasonic liposuction in the treatment of gynecomastia (2005) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 116 (2), pp. 646-653. , DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000173441.57812.e8; Rohrich, R.J., Ha, R.Y., Kenkel, J.M., Adams Jr., W.P., Classification and management of gynecomastia: Defining the role of ultrasound-assisted liposuction (2003) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 111 (2), pp. 909-923. , DOI 10.1097/01.PRS.0000042146.40379.25; Fruhstorfer, B.H., Malata, C.M., A systematic approach to the surgical treatment of gynaecomastia (2003) British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 56 (3), pp. 237-246. , DOI 10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00111-5; Petty, P.M., Solomon, M., Buchel, E.W., Gynecomastia: Evolving paradigm of management and comparison of techniques (2010) Plast Reconstr Surg., 125, pp. 1301-1308; Cordova, A., Moschella, F., Algorithm for clinical evaluation and surgical treatment of gynaecomastia (2008) Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 61 (1), pp. 41-49. , DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2007.09.033, PII S1748681507004937; Hammond, D.C., Arnold, J.F., Simon, A.M., Capraro, P.A., Combined use of ultrasonic liposuction with the pull-through technique for the treatment of gynecomastia (2003) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 112 (3), pp. 891-895. , DOI 10.1097/01.PRS.0000072254.75067.F7; Tu, L.C., Tung, K.Y., Chen, H.C., Eccentric mastectomy and zigzag periareolar incision for gynecomastia (2009) Aesthetic Plast Surg., 33, pp. 549-554; Lanitis, S., Starren, E., Read, J., Surgical management of gynaecomastia: Outcomes from our experience (2008) Breast., 17, pp. 596-603; Wiesman, I.M., Lehman Jr., J.A., Parker, M.G., Tantri, M.D.P., Wagner, D.S., Pedersen, J.C., Gynecomastia: An outcome analysis (2004) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 53 (2), pp. 97-101. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000116256.01831.17; Pitanguy, I., Transareolar incision for gynecomastia (1966) Plast Reconstr Surg., 38, pp. 414-419; Letterman, G., Schurter, M., Gynecomastia (1982) Male Aesthetic Surgery, pp. 295-316. , Courtiss EH, ed St. Louis, MO: Mosby; Courtiss, E.H., Gynecomastia: Analysis of 159 patients and current recommendation for treatment (1987) Plast Reconstr Surg., 79, pp. 740-753; Rosenberg, G.J., Gynecomastia: Suction lipectomy as a contemporary solution (1987) Plast Reconstr Surg., 80, pp. 379-386; Boni, R., Tumescent power liposuction in the treatment of the enlarged male breast (2006) Dermatology, 213 (2), pp. 140-143. , DOI 10.1159/000093853; Zocchi, M., Ultrasonic liposculpturing (1992) Aesthetic Plast Surg., 16, pp. 287-298; Tashkandi, M., Al-Qattan, M.M., Hassanain, J.M., Hawary, M.B., Sultan, M., The surgical management of high-grade gynecomastia (2004) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 53 (1), pp. 17-20. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000112347.30612.f4; Maxwell, G.P., Gingrass, M.K., Ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty: A clinical study of 250 consecutive patients (1998) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 101 (1), pp. 189-202. , DOI 10.1097/00006534-199801000-00034; Ablaza, V.J., Jones, M.R., Gingrass, M.K., Ultrasound assisted lipoplasty (1998) Plast Surg Nurs., 18, pp. 13-25; Morselli, P.G., {"}Pull-through{"}: A new technique for breast reduction in gy-necomastia (1996) Plast Reconstr Surg., 97, pp. 450-454; Ramon, Y., Fodor, L., Peled, I.J., Eldor, L., Egozi, D., Ullmann, Y., Multimodality gynecomastia repair by cross-chest power-assisted superficial liposuction combined with endoscopic-assisted pull-through excision (2005) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 55 (6), pp. 591-594. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000189664.88464.34; Handschin, A.E., Bietry, D., Husler, R., Banic, A., Constantinescu, M., Surgical management of gynecomastia - A 10-year analysis (2008) World Journal of Surgery, 32 (1), pp. 38-44. , DOI 10.1007/s00268-007-9280-3",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: Complications and outcomes

AU - Li, Chun-Chang

AU - Fu, Ju-Peng

AU - Chang, Shun-Cheng

AU - Chen, Tim-Mo

AU - Chen, Shyi-Gen

N1 - 被引用次數:3 Export Date: 21 March 2016 CODEN: APCSD 通訊地址: Chen, S.-G.; Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Cheng-Kung Rd, Sec 2, Taipei 114, Taiwan; 電子郵件: miho0402@ndmctsgh.edu.tw 參考文獻: Narula, H.S., Carlson, H.E., Gynecomastia (2007) Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 36 (2), pp. 497-519. , DOI 10.1016/j.ecl.2007.03.013, PII S0889852907000308, Andrology; Nuttall, F.Q., Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men (1979) Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 48 (2), pp. 338-340; Niewoehner, C.B., Nuttall, F.Q., Gynecomastia in a hospitalized male population (1984) American Journal of Medicine, 77 (4), pp. 633-638; Bembo, S.A., Carlson, H.E., Gynecomastia: Its features, and when and how to treat it (2004) Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 71 (6), pp. 511-517; Simon, B.E., Hoffman, S., Kahn, S., Classification and surgical correction of gy-necomastia (1973) Plast Reconstr Surg., 51, pp. 48-56; Webster, J.P., Mastectomy for gynecomastia through a semicircular intra-areolar incision (1946) Ann Surg., 124, pp. 557-575; Benelli, L., A new periareolar mammaplasty: The 'round block' technique (1990) Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 14 (2), pp. 93-100; Hodgson, E.L.B., Fruhstorfer, B.H., Malata, C.M., Ultrasonic liposuction in the treatment of gynecomastia (2005) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 116 (2), pp. 646-653. , DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000173441.57812.e8; Rohrich, R.J., Ha, R.Y., Kenkel, J.M., Adams Jr., W.P., Classification and management of gynecomastia: Defining the role of ultrasound-assisted liposuction (2003) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 111 (2), pp. 909-923. , DOI 10.1097/01.PRS.0000042146.40379.25; Fruhstorfer, B.H., Malata, C.M., A systematic approach to the surgical treatment of gynaecomastia (2003) British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 56 (3), pp. 237-246. , DOI 10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00111-5; Petty, P.M., Solomon, M., Buchel, E.W., Gynecomastia: Evolving paradigm of management and comparison of techniques (2010) Plast Reconstr Surg., 125, pp. 1301-1308; Cordova, A., Moschella, F., Algorithm for clinical evaluation and surgical treatment of gynaecomastia (2008) Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 61 (1), pp. 41-49. , DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2007.09.033, PII S1748681507004937; Hammond, D.C., Arnold, J.F., Simon, A.M., Capraro, P.A., Combined use of ultrasonic liposuction with the pull-through technique for the treatment of gynecomastia (2003) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 112 (3), pp. 891-895. , DOI 10.1097/01.PRS.0000072254.75067.F7; Tu, L.C., Tung, K.Y., Chen, H.C., Eccentric mastectomy and zigzag periareolar incision for gynecomastia (2009) Aesthetic Plast Surg., 33, pp. 549-554; Lanitis, S., Starren, E., Read, J., Surgical management of gynaecomastia: Outcomes from our experience (2008) Breast., 17, pp. 596-603; Wiesman, I.M., Lehman Jr., J.A., Parker, M.G., Tantri, M.D.P., Wagner, D.S., Pedersen, J.C., Gynecomastia: An outcome analysis (2004) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 53 (2), pp. 97-101. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000116256.01831.17; Pitanguy, I., Transareolar incision for gynecomastia (1966) Plast Reconstr Surg., 38, pp. 414-419; Letterman, G., Schurter, M., Gynecomastia (1982) Male Aesthetic Surgery, pp. 295-316. , Courtiss EH, ed St. Louis, MO: Mosby; Courtiss, E.H., Gynecomastia: Analysis of 159 patients and current recommendation for treatment (1987) Plast Reconstr Surg., 79, pp. 740-753; Rosenberg, G.J., Gynecomastia: Suction lipectomy as a contemporary solution (1987) Plast Reconstr Surg., 80, pp. 379-386; Boni, R., Tumescent power liposuction in the treatment of the enlarged male breast (2006) Dermatology, 213 (2), pp. 140-143. , DOI 10.1159/000093853; Zocchi, M., Ultrasonic liposculpturing (1992) Aesthetic Plast Surg., 16, pp. 287-298; Tashkandi, M., Al-Qattan, M.M., Hassanain, J.M., Hawary, M.B., Sultan, M., The surgical management of high-grade gynecomastia (2004) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 53 (1), pp. 17-20. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000112347.30612.f4; Maxwell, G.P., Gingrass, M.K., Ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty: A clinical study of 250 consecutive patients (1998) Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 101 (1), pp. 189-202. , DOI 10.1097/00006534-199801000-00034; Ablaza, V.J., Jones, M.R., Gingrass, M.K., Ultrasound assisted lipoplasty (1998) Plast Surg Nurs., 18, pp. 13-25; Morselli, P.G., "Pull-through": A new technique for breast reduction in gy-necomastia (1996) Plast Reconstr Surg., 97, pp. 450-454; Ramon, Y., Fodor, L., Peled, I.J., Eldor, L., Egozi, D., Ullmann, Y., Multimodality gynecomastia repair by cross-chest power-assisted superficial liposuction combined with endoscopic-assisted pull-through excision (2005) Annals of Plastic Surgery, 55 (6), pp. 591-594. , DOI 10.1097/01.sap.0000189664.88464.34; Handschin, A.E., Bietry, D., Husler, R., Banic, A., Constantinescu, M., Surgical management of gynecomastia - A 10-year analysis (2008) World Journal of Surgery, 32 (1), pp. 38-44. , DOI 10.1007/s00268-007-9280-3

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

AB - Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Multiple surgical options have been used to improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approaches to the treatment of gynecomastia and their outcomes over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical correction of gynecomastia in our department between 2000 and 2010 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and revision rate. The surgical result was evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 41 patients with 75 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) and isolated UAL. The surgical revision rate for all patients was 4.8%. The skin-sparing procedure gave good surgical results in grade IIb and grade III gynecomastia with low revision and complication rates. The self-assessment report revealed a good level of overall satisfaction and improvement in self-confidence (average scores 9.4 and 9.2, respectively, on a 10-point scale). The treatment of gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Subcutaneous mastectomy combined with UAL could be used as the first choice for surgical treatment of grade II and III gynecomastia. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

KW - gynecomastia

KW - liposuction

KW - mastectomy

KW - pull-through technique

KW - adolescent

KW - adult

KW - aged

KW - article

KW - breast reconstruction

KW - human

KW - male

KW - methodology

KW - middle aged

KW - retrospective study

KW - treatment outcome

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Aged

KW - Gynecomastia

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Mammaplasty

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Retrospective Studies

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1097/SAP.0b013e318222834d

DO - 10.1097/SAP.0b013e318222834d

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 510

EP - 515

JO - Annals of Plastic Surgery

T2 - Annals of Plastic Surgery

JF - Annals of Plastic Surgery

SN - 0148-7043

IS - 5

ER -