Introduction: The immunosuppressant agents in kidney transplantation (KT) may lead to various complications such as opportunistic infections and malignancies. BK virus associated nephropathy is a significant complication following KT, and it can result in graft failure. BK virus causes tubulointerstitial nephritis, ureter stenosis, and even graft failure in KT recipients with impaired immune system. We described a 63-year-old woman, who was a hepatitis C carrier and on dialysis for 22 years before KT, who received cadaveric-donor KT 2 years previously. She reported decreasing urine output and general weakness. The serum creatinine level was slightly increased from 2.94 to 4.38 mg/dL. Methods: Immunosuppressant medications including prednisolone, everolimus, cyclosporin, and mycophenolate sodium were continued as maintenance therapy post KT. Kidney biopsy was performed due to deterioration of graft function. Results: The kidney biopsy showed consistent results with early-stage polyomavirus nephropathy, characterized by focal viral cytopathic changes with positive immunohistochemical signals and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, immune-complex-mediated (Fig 1 and Fig 2). Negative C4d staining at peritubular capillary was reported. The dosage of mycophenolate sodium was tapered from 720 to 360 mg daily and that of everolimus increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mg daily due to BK viral infection with BK nephropathy. The serum creatinine level was 2.75 mg/dL after treatment. Conclusion: Early detection of BK nephropathy and decreasing immunosuppressant agents are the mainstay of treatment. Substituting leflunomide for mycophenolate sodium and increasing dosage of everolimus has been proposed to solve BK nephropathy. We presented that the use of leflunomide in such situation is in a timely manner.
|Number of pages||3|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2019|
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