Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for the reversal effect of NF449 (a suramin analogue) on the neuromuscular block induced by d-tubocurarine (d-TC). Main methods: Nerve-stimulated muscle contractions and end-plate potentials were performed in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced muscle contractions were performed in the chick biventer cervicis preparations. Presynaptic nerve terminal waveform recordings were performed in mouse triangularis sterni preparations. Key findings: Amongst the suramin analogues in this study, only the NF449 and suramin were able to reverse the blockade effect produced by d-TC on nerve-stimulated muscle contractions. Each of these suramin analogues (NF007, NF023, NF279 and NF449) alone has no significant effect on the amplitude of nerve-stimulated muscle contractions. NF449 and suramin also showed the antagonising effects on the inhibition of end-plate potentials induced by d-TC. Furthermore, pre-treatment with NF449 can antagonise the inhibition of d-TC in ACh-induced contractions of chick biventer cervicis muscle. NF449 produced a greater rightward shift of the dose-response inhibition curve for d-TC than did suramin. Because other purinergic 2X (P2X) receptor antagonists, NF023 and NF279, do not have the reverse effects on the neuromuscular blockade of d-TC, the effect of NF449 seems irrelevant to inhibition of P2X receptors. Significance: These data suggest that NF449 was able to compete with the binding of d-TC on the nicotinic ACh receptors, and the effect of NF449 was more potent than suramin in reducing the inhibition of d-TC. The structure of NF449 may provide useful information for designing potent antidotes against neuromuscular toxins.
- Neuromuscular blockade reversal agents
- Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
- Suramin analogues
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)