The influence of co-solvents on the in-vitro percutaneous penetration of indomethacin from gel systems was studied using a simplex lattice experimental design. Gel formulations were prepared by gelling the vehicle mixture of water, either alcohol or isopropanol and either propylene glycol or PEG 400 with 1% w/w Carbomer 940. Hairless mouse skin was employed as the barrier in a Franz-type diffusion cell. The penetration rates at steady state for seven formulations were fitted to a polynomial equation based on this simple lattice method and a three-dimensional plot was constructed. The formulation having the maximal penetration rate was determined to be the vehicle with a solvent ratio of water:alcohol:propylene glycol equal to 15:33:52, and which possessed a solubility parameter of 15 and a drug solubility of around 10 mg mL-1. When the solubility parameter of the vehicle was > 15, the drug solubility increased. However, the penetration rate decreased with an increasing solubility parameter. For those vehicles with a solubility parameter <15, both the drug solubility and the penetration rate decreased with a decrease in the solubility parameter. There was shown to be an approximately 20-fold increase in the relative enhancement factor when using both alcohol and isopropanol, but only a threefold increase for both propylene glycol and PEG 400, when compared with water.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science