Structure-activity relationships of anthraquinones as inhibitors of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

Nina Jyu Hao, Ming Pei Huang, Huei Lee

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28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The antimutagenicity of 17 natural and synthetic anthraquinones was determined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S9. In general, the relationship between the chemical structures of anthraquinones and their antimutagenicity was found to contain one or more of the following features: (i) C9 carbonyl group, (ii) hydroxyl group at C1 and C4, (iii) C2 ethyl group, and (iv) C3 methyl group. The inhibitory effect of anthraquinones on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) of Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic microsomes was also examined. In addition, we studied the effect of anthraquinones on the metabolism of IQ by Aroclor 1254-induced microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenicity correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P-450IA2-linked ECD activity in hepatic microsomes, and with the inhibition of N-hydroxy-IQ formation of IQ metabolism by hepatic microsomes. Moreover, we also examined the antimutagenicity of anthraquinones against synthetic N-hydroxy-IQ. Quinizarin and anthraflavic acid were shown to have more effect on the direct mutagenicity of N-hydroxy-IQ than that of the anthraquinones tested. This might explain why both anthraquinones showed higher antimutagenicity, although they inhibited ECD less. These results suggest that there exist at least two mechanisms of action in modifying roles of anthraquinones on the mutagenicity of IQ: (i) mediation through interaction with microsomal activating enzymes to inhibit the major active metabolite of N-hydroxy-IQ formation and (ii) direct interaction with the proximate metabolite of IQ, N-hydroxy-IQ, to block its attack on DNA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-191
Number of pages9
JournalMutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
Volume328
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline
7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase
Anthraquinones
Structure-Activity Relationship
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)
Microsomes
Liver
Salmonella typhimurium
Cytochromes
Hydroxyl Radical

Keywords

  • Anthraquinone
  • Antimutagenicity
  • Cytochrome P-450

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

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title = "Structure-activity relationships of anthraquinones as inhibitors of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline",
abstract = "The antimutagenicity of 17 natural and synthetic anthraquinones was determined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S9. In general, the relationship between the chemical structures of anthraquinones and their antimutagenicity was found to contain one or more of the following features: (i) C9 carbonyl group, (ii) hydroxyl group at C1 and C4, (iii) C2 ethyl group, and (iv) C3 methyl group. The inhibitory effect of anthraquinones on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) of Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic microsomes was also examined. In addition, we studied the effect of anthraquinones on the metabolism of IQ by Aroclor 1254-induced microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenicity correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P-450IA2-linked ECD activity in hepatic microsomes, and with the inhibition of N-hydroxy-IQ formation of IQ metabolism by hepatic microsomes. Moreover, we also examined the antimutagenicity of anthraquinones against synthetic N-hydroxy-IQ. Quinizarin and anthraflavic acid were shown to have more effect on the direct mutagenicity of N-hydroxy-IQ than that of the anthraquinones tested. This might explain why both anthraquinones showed higher antimutagenicity, although they inhibited ECD less. These results suggest that there exist at least two mechanisms of action in modifying roles of anthraquinones on the mutagenicity of IQ: (i) mediation through interaction with microsomal activating enzymes to inhibit the major active metabolite of N-hydroxy-IQ formation and (ii) direct interaction with the proximate metabolite of IQ, N-hydroxy-IQ, to block its attack on DNA.",
keywords = "Anthraquinone, Antimutagenicity, Cytochrome P-450",
author = "Hao, {Nina Jyu} and Huang, {Ming Pei} and Huei Lee",
year = "1995",
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journal = "Mutation Research",
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T1 - Structure-activity relationships of anthraquinones as inhibitors of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

AU - Hao, Nina Jyu

AU - Huang, Ming Pei

AU - Lee, Huei

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - The antimutagenicity of 17 natural and synthetic anthraquinones was determined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S9. In general, the relationship between the chemical structures of anthraquinones and their antimutagenicity was found to contain one or more of the following features: (i) C9 carbonyl group, (ii) hydroxyl group at C1 and C4, (iii) C2 ethyl group, and (iv) C3 methyl group. The inhibitory effect of anthraquinones on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) of Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic microsomes was also examined. In addition, we studied the effect of anthraquinones on the metabolism of IQ by Aroclor 1254-induced microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenicity correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P-450IA2-linked ECD activity in hepatic microsomes, and with the inhibition of N-hydroxy-IQ formation of IQ metabolism by hepatic microsomes. Moreover, we also examined the antimutagenicity of anthraquinones against synthetic N-hydroxy-IQ. Quinizarin and anthraflavic acid were shown to have more effect on the direct mutagenicity of N-hydroxy-IQ than that of the anthraquinones tested. This might explain why both anthraquinones showed higher antimutagenicity, although they inhibited ECD less. These results suggest that there exist at least two mechanisms of action in modifying roles of anthraquinones on the mutagenicity of IQ: (i) mediation through interaction with microsomal activating enzymes to inhibit the major active metabolite of N-hydroxy-IQ formation and (ii) direct interaction with the proximate metabolite of IQ, N-hydroxy-IQ, to block its attack on DNA.

AB - The antimutagenicity of 17 natural and synthetic anthraquinones was determined using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S9. In general, the relationship between the chemical structures of anthraquinones and their antimutagenicity was found to contain one or more of the following features: (i) C9 carbonyl group, (ii) hydroxyl group at C1 and C4, (iii) C2 ethyl group, and (iv) C3 methyl group. The inhibitory effect of anthraquinones on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) of Aroclor 1254-induced hepatic microsomes was also examined. In addition, we studied the effect of anthraquinones on the metabolism of IQ by Aroclor 1254-induced microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenicity correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P-450IA2-linked ECD activity in hepatic microsomes, and with the inhibition of N-hydroxy-IQ formation of IQ metabolism by hepatic microsomes. Moreover, we also examined the antimutagenicity of anthraquinones against synthetic N-hydroxy-IQ. Quinizarin and anthraflavic acid were shown to have more effect on the direct mutagenicity of N-hydroxy-IQ than that of the anthraquinones tested. This might explain why both anthraquinones showed higher antimutagenicity, although they inhibited ECD less. These results suggest that there exist at least two mechanisms of action in modifying roles of anthraquinones on the mutagenicity of IQ: (i) mediation through interaction with microsomal activating enzymes to inhibit the major active metabolite of N-hydroxy-IQ formation and (ii) direct interaction with the proximate metabolite of IQ, N-hydroxy-IQ, to block its attack on DNA.

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