Background The association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke remains completely understood. Aim We aimed to investigate stroke risk and post-stroke outcomes in patients with PD. Design The retrospective cohort study included 1303 patients aged ≥ 40 years with new-diagnosed PD and 5212 non-PD adults were selected by frequency matching with age and sex in 2000-05. Both two groups were followed up until the end of 2013. Another nested stroke cohort study of 17 678 patients with stroke hospitalization in 2002-09 was conducted to compare the admission outcome in patients with and without PD history. Methods We collected patients' characteristics and medical conditions in the present two studies from claims data of Taiwan's National Health Insurance. Incidences and risks of stroke in people with and without PD during the follow-up period were calculated by adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the Cox proportional hazard model. Complications and mortality during the stroke admission associated with PD were analysed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs in the logistic regressions. Results Incidences of stroke for people with and without PD were 19.8 and 9.93 per 1000 person-years, respectively, with corresponding HR of 1.96 (95% CI 1.67-2.30). History of PD was associated with post-stroke gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49), epilepsy (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32-2.04), pneumonia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49), urinary tract infection (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45) and mortality (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Conclusion PD increases stroke risk and influences post-stroke outcomes.
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