The biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites by biomolecule-based templates is a promising way for broadening apatite applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this work, heparin was used as an organic template to prepare uniform carbonate-based apatite nanorods (CHA) and graft ferulic acid (F-CHA) for enhanced bone mineralization. Next, by combining calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with different F-CHA/CPC ratios, a new type of injectable bone cement combined with F-CHA bioactive apatite was developed (CPC + F-CHA). The physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and mineralization potential of the CPC + F-CHA composites were determined in vitro. The experimental results confirmed the preparation of highly biocompatible CHA and the compatibility of F-CHA with CPC. Although CPC + F-CHA composites with F-CHA (2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt%) showed a significant reduction in compressive strength (CS), compositing CPC with 10 wt% F-CHA yielded a CS suitable for orthopedic repair (CS still larger than 30 MPa). Spectroscopic and phase analyses revealed that the phase of the hydrothermally synthesized CHA product was not modified by the heparin template. Injection and disintegration tests indicated that the CPC + F-CHA composites have good biocompatibility even at 10 wt% F-CHA. D1 osteoprogenitor cells were cultured with the composites for 7 days in vitro, and the CPC + 10%F-CHA group demonstrated significantly promoted cell mineralization compared with other groups. Given these results, the use of over 10% F-CHA in CPC composites should be avoided if the latter is to be applied to load-bearing areas. A stress-shielding device may also be recommended to stabilize these areas. These newly developed biocompatible CPC + F-CHA have great potential as osteoconductive bone fillers for bone tissue engineering.
- Calcium phosphate bone cement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Polymers and Plastics