Stabilization and phase transformation of CuFe2O4 sintered from simulated copper-laden sludge

Nien Hsun Li, Shang Lain Lo, Ching Yao Hu, Ching Hong Hsieh, Ching Lung Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


The feasibility of stabilizing copper-laden sludge by high-temperature CuFe2O4 ferritization process is investigated with different sintering temperature, and the prolonged leaching test. The thermal behavior, structural morphology, phase composition, and phase transformation of the stabilized sludge were investigated by using thermal gravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The leaching behavior of the stabilized sludge under acidic environment was evaluated by modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The results indicated that CuFe2O4 could be effectively formed at around 800°C by the iron oxide precursor with a 3h of short sintering. The transformation was discovered on crystallographic spinel structures: the low-temperature (800-900°C) tetragonal phase (t-CuFe2O4) and the high-temperature (~1000°C) cubic phase (c-CuFe2O4). At higher temperatures (~1100°C), the formation of cuprous ferrite delafossite phase (CuFeO2) from the dissociation of CuFe2O4 was also noticed. Both CuFe2O4 spinel and CuFeO2 delafossite phase have a better intrinsic resistance to acidic environment when compared to that of CuO phase by the modified TCLP test. The sintering strategy designed for copper-laden sludge is proven to be beneficial in stabilizing copper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-603
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2011


  • Copper
  • CuFeO
  • Sludge
  • Spinel
  • Stabilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering


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