Skin permeation of small-molecule drugs, macromolecules, and nanoparticles mediated by a fractional carbon dioxide laser: The role of hair follicles

Woan Ruoh Lee, Shing Chuan Shen, Saleh A. Al-Suwayeh, Hung Hsu Yang, Yi Ching Li, Jia You Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate skin permeation enhancement mediated by fractional laser for different permeants, including hydroquinone, imiquimod, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD), and quantum dots. Methods: Skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO2 laser, using fluence of 2 or 4 mJ with densities of 100 ∼ 400 spots/cm2. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies for imaging delivery pathways were used. Results: The laser enhanced flux of small-molecule drugs 2 ∼ 5-fold compared to intact skin. A laser fluence of 4 mJ with a 400-spot/cm2 density promoted FD flux at 20 and 40 kDa from 0 (passive transport) to 0.72 and 0.43 nmol/cm 2/h, respectively. Microscopic images demonstrated a significant increase in fluorescence accumulation and penetration depth of macromolecules and nanoparticles after laser exposure. Predominant routes for laser-assisted delivery may be intercellular and follicular transport. CO2 laser irradiation produced 13-fold enhancement in follicular deposition of imiquimod. Laser-mediated follicular transport could deliver permeants to deeper strata. Skin barrier function as determined by transepidermal water loss completely recovered by 12 h after irradiation, much faster than conventional laser treatment (4 days). Conclusions: Fractional laser could selectively enhance permeant targeting to follicles such as imiquimod and FD but not hydroquinone, indicating the importance of selecting feasible drugs for laser-assisted follicle delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)792-802
Number of pages11
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Volume30
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013

Fingerprint

Carbon dioxide lasers
Gas Lasers
Hair Follicle
Macromolecules
Permeation
Nanoparticles
Skin
Lasers
imiquimod
Molecules
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Irradiation
Quantum Dots
Fluxes
Confocal microscopy
Fluorescence microscopy
Fluorescence Microscopy
Confocal Microscopy
Laser beam effects
Dextrans

Keywords

  • fractional CO laser
  • hair follicles
  • macromolecule
  • nanoparticle
  • skin permeation
  • small-molecule drug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Biotechnology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Skin permeation of small-molecule drugs, macromolecules, and nanoparticles mediated by a fractional carbon dioxide laser : The role of hair follicles. / Lee, Woan Ruoh; Shen, Shing Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.; Yang, Hung Hsu; Li, Yi Ching; Fang, Jia You.

In: Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 30, No. 3, 03.2013, p. 792-802.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Purpose: To evaluate skin permeation enhancement mediated by fractional laser for different permeants, including hydroquinone, imiquimod, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD), and quantum dots. Methods: Skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO2 laser, using fluence of 2 or 4 mJ with densities of 100 ∼ 400 spots/cm2. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies for imaging delivery pathways were used. Results: The laser enhanced flux of small-molecule drugs 2 ∼ 5-fold compared to intact skin. A laser fluence of 4 mJ with a 400-spot/cm2 density promoted FD flux at 20 and 40 kDa from 0 (passive transport) to 0.72 and 0.43 nmol/cm 2/h, respectively. Microscopic images demonstrated a significant increase in fluorescence accumulation and penetration depth of macromolecules and nanoparticles after laser exposure. Predominant routes for laser-assisted delivery may be intercellular and follicular transport. CO2 laser irradiation produced 13-fold enhancement in follicular deposition of imiquimod. Laser-mediated follicular transport could deliver permeants to deeper strata. Skin barrier function as determined by transepidermal water loss completely recovered by 12 h after irradiation, much faster than conventional laser treatment (4 days). Conclusions: Fractional laser could selectively enhance permeant targeting to follicles such as imiquimod and FD but not hydroquinone, indicating the importance of selecting feasible drugs for laser-assisted follicle delivery.",
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AB - Purpose: To evaluate skin permeation enhancement mediated by fractional laser for different permeants, including hydroquinone, imiquimod, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FD), and quantum dots. Methods: Skin received a single irradiation of a fractional CO2 laser, using fluence of 2 or 4 mJ with densities of 100 ∼ 400 spots/cm2. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies for imaging delivery pathways were used. Results: The laser enhanced flux of small-molecule drugs 2 ∼ 5-fold compared to intact skin. A laser fluence of 4 mJ with a 400-spot/cm2 density promoted FD flux at 20 and 40 kDa from 0 (passive transport) to 0.72 and 0.43 nmol/cm 2/h, respectively. Microscopic images demonstrated a significant increase in fluorescence accumulation and penetration depth of macromolecules and nanoparticles after laser exposure. Predominant routes for laser-assisted delivery may be intercellular and follicular transport. CO2 laser irradiation produced 13-fold enhancement in follicular deposition of imiquimod. Laser-mediated follicular transport could deliver permeants to deeper strata. Skin barrier function as determined by transepidermal water loss completely recovered by 12 h after irradiation, much faster than conventional laser treatment (4 days). Conclusions: Fractional laser could selectively enhance permeant targeting to follicles such as imiquimod and FD but not hydroquinone, indicating the importance of selecting feasible drugs for laser-assisted follicle delivery.

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