We report on silent brain infarction (SBI) and leuko- araiosis (LA) of 23 patients with clinically diagnosed “first-ever” acute ischemic lacunar stroke. The lacunar syndromes were pure motor hemiparesis (10), pure sensory syndrome (2), ataxic hemiparesis (3), dysarthria clumsy hand syndrome (3), and sensory- motor deficit (5). Nineteen out of the 23 patients presented with completed strokes on arrival to the hospital, and 4 (17%) developed evolving-stroke within 24 hours of stroke onset. A lacune corresponded to the acute stroke could be found in all patients on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 18 (78%) on brain computed tomography (CT). MRI showed additional subclinical or asymptomatic “silent brain infarctions or lacunes” (SBI) in 19 (83%) of 23 patients, and leuko-araiosis (LA) of moderate to severe degree (> grade 2) was present in 61% of patients although dementia was absent. Hypertension is the risk factor in 78% of cases followed by diabetes mellitus, smoking, and elevated plasma cholesterol level. Independence of the types of lacunar syndromes, patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high grade LA. None with normal blood pressure and plasma glucose had grade 3 or grade 4 LA (p < 0.05). In conclusion, evolving-stroke occurs in one- fifth of patients with “first-ever” lacunar infarct within the first 24 hours of stroke onset. SBI was found in 83% of cases. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with additional SBI and high grade LA. The severity of leuko-araiosis per se dictates the cerebrovascular risks.