Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population

Chun-Jung Huang, H.-J. Chiu, Tsuo-Hung Lan, H.-F. Wang, Sheng W. Kuo, Shuo-Fei Chen, Yen-Hsin Yu, Yun-Ru Liu, Tsung-Ming Hu, E.-W. Loh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neuro-developmental hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia is originated from aberrant brain development during first and/or early trimester of gestation. Accordingly, when a schizophrenia gene is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and continues to play a role in the later life, it may result in the co-occurrence of defective organ systems and/or physiological functions with schizophrenia. We proposed a checklist with 13 morphological features and examine their prevalence rates in 151 schizophrenic patients and 151 controls. Statistical analyses showed that single transverse palmar crease, head circumference, covered epicanthus, finger length difference, and inner canthus distance, made significant contributions to schizophrenia. To rule out the age confounding effects on morphological features, we dropped older schizophrenic subjects and younger controls in further regression analysis. The regression model correctly classified 82.8% of control subjects (specificity) and 86.4% of schizophrenic patients (sensitivity), and provided an overall successful classification rate of 84.5%, with single transverse palmar crease on the first rank. The association of morphological features and schizophrenia is probably genetic in origin, as specific morphological features were more frequent in non-affected parents with higher genetic loading of schizophrenia. In addition, the association of finger length difference in schizophrenia found in this study has never been reported elsewhere. Our study showed that five out of 13 morphological features in the propose checklist may be used as biomarkers for schizophrenia, either for clinical practice or research purposes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-68
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Schizophrenia
Population
Checklist
Fingers
Embryonic Development
Biomarkers
Parents
Head
Regression Analysis
Pregnancy
Brain
Research
Genes

Keywords

  • Embryo
  • Minor physical anomalies
  • Morphological features
  • Neuro-developmental hypothesis
  • Schizophrenia
  • Waldrop scale
  • adult
  • article
  • Chinese
  • controlled study
  • epicanthus
  • female
  • head circumference
  • human
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • morphology
  • population research
  • prevalence
  • priority journal
  • reliability
  • schizophrenia
  • sensitivity and specificity
  • statistical analysis
  • Adult
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Checklist
  • Extremities
  • Female
  • Head
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Schizophrenic Psychology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric

Cite this

Huang, C-J., Chiu, H-J., Lan, T-H., Wang, H-F., Kuo, S. W., Chen, S-F., ... Loh, E-W. (2010). Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44(2), 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.06.004

Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population. / Huang, Chun-Jung; Chiu, H.-J.; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Wang, H.-F.; Kuo, Sheng W.; Chen, Shuo-Fei; Yu, Yen-Hsin; Liu, Yun-Ru; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, E.-W.

In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2010, p. 63-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huang, C-J, Chiu, H-J, Lan, T-H, Wang, H-F, Kuo, SW, Chen, S-F, Yu, Y-H, Liu, Y-R, Hu, T-M & Loh, E-W 2010, 'Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population', Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.06.004
Huang, Chun-Jung ; Chiu, H.-J. ; Lan, Tsuo-Hung ; Wang, H.-F. ; Kuo, Sheng W. ; Chen, Shuo-Fei ; Yu, Yen-Hsin ; Liu, Yun-Ru ; Hu, Tsung-Ming ; Loh, E.-W. / Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population. In: Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2010 ; Vol. 44, No. 2. pp. 63-68.
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title = "Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population",
abstract = "Neuro-developmental hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia is originated from aberrant brain development during first and/or early trimester of gestation. Accordingly, when a schizophrenia gene is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and continues to play a role in the later life, it may result in the co-occurrence of defective organ systems and/or physiological functions with schizophrenia. We proposed a checklist with 13 morphological features and examine their prevalence rates in 151 schizophrenic patients and 151 controls. Statistical analyses showed that single transverse palmar crease, head circumference, covered epicanthus, finger length difference, and inner canthus distance, made significant contributions to schizophrenia. To rule out the age confounding effects on morphological features, we dropped older schizophrenic subjects and younger controls in further regression analysis. The regression model correctly classified 82.8{\%} of control subjects (specificity) and 86.4{\%} of schizophrenic patients (sensitivity), and provided an overall successful classification rate of 84.5{\%}, with single transverse palmar crease on the first rank. The association of morphological features and schizophrenia is probably genetic in origin, as specific morphological features were more frequent in non-affected parents with higher genetic loading of schizophrenia. In addition, the association of finger length difference in schizophrenia found in this study has never been reported elsewhere. Our study showed that five out of 13 morphological features in the propose checklist may be used as biomarkers for schizophrenia, either for clinical practice or research purposes. {\circledC} 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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author = "Chun-Jung Huang and H.-J. Chiu and Tsuo-Hung Lan and H.-F. Wang and Kuo, {Sheng W.} and Shuo-Fei Chen and Yen-Hsin Yu and Yun-Ru Liu and Tsung-Ming Hu and E.-W. Loh",
note = "被引用次數:4 Export Date: 29 March 2016 CODEN: JPYRA 通訊地址: Loh, E.-W.; Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Mioali County, Taiwan; 電子郵件: eloh@nhri.org.tw 參考文獻: Akabaliev, V.H., Sivkov, S.T., Sexual dimorphism in minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and normal controls (2003) Compr Psychiat, 44, pp. 341-348; Compton, M.T., Furman, A.C., Kaslow, N.J., Lower negative symptom scores among cannabis-dependent patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: preliminary evidence from an African American first-episode sample (2004) Schizophr Res, 71, pp. 61-64; Goldfarb, W., Botstein, A., (1956) Physical stigmata in schizophrenic children, , Unpublished Manuscript, Brooklyn, NY: Henry Ittleson Center for Child Research;; Gorlin, R.J., Chen, M.M., Levin, S.L., (1990) Syndromes of the head and neck, , Oxford University Press, New York; Gorlin, R.J., Cohen, M.M., Hennekam, R.C., (2001) Syndromes of the head and neck. 4th ed., , Oxford University Press, Oxford; Gourion, D., Goldberger, C., Olie, J.P., L{\^o}o, H., Krebs, M.O., Neurological and morphological anomalies and the genetic liability to schizophrenia: a composite phenotype (2004) Schizophr Res, 67, pp. 23-31; Handoko, H.Y., Nancarrow, D.J., Mowry, B.J., McGrath, J.J., Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and their associations with risk of schizophrenia and selected anthropometric measures (2006) Am J Human Biol, 18, pp. 415-417; Hata, K., Iida, J., Iwasaka, H., Negoro, H.I., Ueda, F., Kishimoto, T., Minor physical anomalies in childhood and adolescent onset schizophrenia (2003) Psychiat Clin Neurosci, 57, pp. 17-21; Ismail, B., Cantor-Graae, E., McNeil, T.F., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and their siblings (1998) Am J Psychiat, 155, pp. 1695-1702; Kirkpatrick, B., Hack, G.D., Higginbottom, E., Hoffacker, D., Fernandez-Egea, E., Palate and dentition in schizophrenia (2007) Schizophr Res, 91, pp. 187-191; Krouse, J.P., Kauffman, J.M., Minor physical anomalies in exceptional children: a review and critique of research (1982) J Abnorm Child Psych, 10, pp. 247-264; Lane, A., Larkin, C., Waddington, J.L., O'Callaghan, E., (1996) Dysmorphic features and schizophrenia in the neurodevelopmental basis of schizophrenia, pp. 79-93. , Waddington J.L., and Buckley P.F. (Eds), Landes, London; Lane, A., Kinsella, A., Murphy, P., Byrne, M., Keenan, J., Colgan, K., The anthropometric assessment of dysmorphic features in schizophrenia as an index of its developmental origins (1997) Psychol Med, 27, pp. 1155-1164; Leppig, K.A., Werler, M.M., Cann, C.I., Cook, C.A., Holmes, L.B., Predictive value of minor anomalies. I. Association with major malformations (1987) J Pediatr, 110, pp. 530-537; Lloyd, T., Doody, G., Brewin, J., Park, B., Jones, P., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia: is age a confounding factor? (2003) Schizophr Res, 61, pp. 67-73; M{\'e}hes, K., (1988) Informative morphogenetic variants in the newborn, , Budapest, Akad{\'e}miai Kiad{\'o}; Murphy, K.C., Owen, M.J., Minor physical anomalies and their relationship to the aetiology of schizophrenia (1996) Brit J Psychiat, 168, pp. 139-142; Murray, R.M., O'Callaghan, E., Castle, D.J., Lewis, S.W., A neurodevelopmental approach to the classification of schizophrenia (1992) Schizophr Bull, 18, pp. 319-332; Opitz, J.M., Invited editorial comment: study of minor anomalies in childhood malignancy (1985) Eur J Pediatr, 144, pp. 252-254; Opler, M.G., Susser, E.S., Fetal environment and schizophrenia (2005) Environ Health Persp, 113, pp. 1239-1242; Pinsky, L., Informative morphogenetic variants: minor congenital anomalies revisited (1985) Issues and reviews in teratology, 3. , Kalter H. (Ed), Plenum, New York; Rahman, Q., The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation (2005) Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 29, pp. 1057-1066; Shprintzen, R.J., Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: 30 years of study (2008) Dev Disabil Res Rev, 14, pp. 3-10; Smith, D.W., (1970) Recognizable patterns of human malformation, , WB Saunders, Philadelphia; T{\'e}nyi, T., Trixler, M., Cs{\'a}bi, G., Minor physical anomalies in affective disorders. A review of the literature (2009) J Affect Disorders, 112, pp. 11-18; Tarrant, C.J., Jones, P.B., Precursors to schizophrenia: do biological markers have specificity? (1999) Can J Psychiat, 44, pp. 335-349; Trixler, M., T{\'e}nyi, T., Cs{\'a}bi, G., Szab{\'o}, G., M{\'e}hes, K., Informative morphogenetic variants in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol-dependent patients: beyond the Waldrop scale (1997) Am J Psychiat, 154, pp. 691-693; Trixler, M., T{\'e}nyi, T., Cs{\'a}bi, G., Szab{\'o}, R., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (2001) Schizophr Res, 52, pp. 195-201; Villavicencio, E.H., Walterhouse, D.O., Iannaccone, P.M., The sonic hedgehog-patched-gli pathway in human development and disease (2000) Am J Human Genet, 67, pp. 1047-1054; Waldrop, M.F., Pedersen, F.A., Bell, R.Q., Minor physical anomalies and behavior in preschool children (1968) Child Dev, 39, pp. 391-400; Weinberger, D.R., Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (1987) Archs Gen Psychiat, 44, pp. 660-669; Weinberg, S.M., Jenkins, E.A., Marazita, M.L., Maher, B.S., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis (2007) Schizophr Res, 89, pp. 72-85; Williams, T.J., Pepitone, M.E., Christensen, S.E., Cooke, B.M., Huberman, A.D., Breedlove, N.J., Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation (2000) Nature, 404, pp. 455-456; Yoshitsugu, K., Yamada, K., Toyota, T., Aoki-Suzuki, M., Minabe, Y., Nakamura, K., A novel scale including strabismus and 'cuspidal ear' for distinguishing schizophrenia patients from controls using minor physical anomalies (2006) Psychiat Res, 145, pp. 249-258",
year = "2010",
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language = "English",
volume = "44",
pages = "63--68",
journal = "Journal of Psychiatric Research",
issn = "0022-3956",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Significance of morphological features in schizophrenia of a Chinese population

AU - Huang, Chun-Jung

AU - Chiu, H.-J.

AU - Lan, Tsuo-Hung

AU - Wang, H.-F.

AU - Kuo, Sheng W.

AU - Chen, Shuo-Fei

AU - Yu, Yen-Hsin

AU - Liu, Yun-Ru

AU - Hu, Tsung-Ming

AU - Loh, E.-W.

N1 - 被引用次數:4 Export Date: 29 March 2016 CODEN: JPYRA 通訊地址: Loh, E.-W.; Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Mioali County, Taiwan; 電子郵件: eloh@nhri.org.tw 參考文獻: Akabaliev, V.H., Sivkov, S.T., Sexual dimorphism in minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and normal controls (2003) Compr Psychiat, 44, pp. 341-348; Compton, M.T., Furman, A.C., Kaslow, N.J., Lower negative symptom scores among cannabis-dependent patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: preliminary evidence from an African American first-episode sample (2004) Schizophr Res, 71, pp. 61-64; Goldfarb, W., Botstein, A., (1956) Physical stigmata in schizophrenic children, , Unpublished Manuscript, Brooklyn, NY: Henry Ittleson Center for Child Research;; Gorlin, R.J., Chen, M.M., Levin, S.L., (1990) Syndromes of the head and neck, , Oxford University Press, New York; Gorlin, R.J., Cohen, M.M., Hennekam, R.C., (2001) Syndromes of the head and neck. 4th ed., , Oxford University Press, Oxford; Gourion, D., Goldberger, C., Olie, J.P., Lôo, H., Krebs, M.O., Neurological and morphological anomalies and the genetic liability to schizophrenia: a composite phenotype (2004) Schizophr Res, 67, pp. 23-31; Handoko, H.Y., Nancarrow, D.J., Mowry, B.J., McGrath, J.J., Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and their associations with risk of schizophrenia and selected anthropometric measures (2006) Am J Human Biol, 18, pp. 415-417; Hata, K., Iida, J., Iwasaka, H., Negoro, H.I., Ueda, F., Kishimoto, T., Minor physical anomalies in childhood and adolescent onset schizophrenia (2003) Psychiat Clin Neurosci, 57, pp. 17-21; Ismail, B., Cantor-Graae, E., McNeil, T.F., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and their siblings (1998) Am J Psychiat, 155, pp. 1695-1702; Kirkpatrick, B., Hack, G.D., Higginbottom, E., Hoffacker, D., Fernandez-Egea, E., Palate and dentition in schizophrenia (2007) Schizophr Res, 91, pp. 187-191; Krouse, J.P., Kauffman, J.M., Minor physical anomalies in exceptional children: a review and critique of research (1982) J Abnorm Child Psych, 10, pp. 247-264; Lane, A., Larkin, C., Waddington, J.L., O'Callaghan, E., (1996) Dysmorphic features and schizophrenia in the neurodevelopmental basis of schizophrenia, pp. 79-93. , Waddington J.L., and Buckley P.F. (Eds), Landes, London; Lane, A., Kinsella, A., Murphy, P., Byrne, M., Keenan, J., Colgan, K., The anthropometric assessment of dysmorphic features in schizophrenia as an index of its developmental origins (1997) Psychol Med, 27, pp. 1155-1164; Leppig, K.A., Werler, M.M., Cann, C.I., Cook, C.A., Holmes, L.B., Predictive value of minor anomalies. I. Association with major malformations (1987) J Pediatr, 110, pp. 530-537; Lloyd, T., Doody, G., Brewin, J., Park, B., Jones, P., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia: is age a confounding factor? (2003) Schizophr Res, 61, pp. 67-73; Méhes, K., (1988) Informative morphogenetic variants in the newborn, , Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó; Murphy, K.C., Owen, M.J., Minor physical anomalies and their relationship to the aetiology of schizophrenia (1996) Brit J Psychiat, 168, pp. 139-142; Murray, R.M., O'Callaghan, E., Castle, D.J., Lewis, S.W., A neurodevelopmental approach to the classification of schizophrenia (1992) Schizophr Bull, 18, pp. 319-332; Opitz, J.M., Invited editorial comment: study of minor anomalies in childhood malignancy (1985) Eur J Pediatr, 144, pp. 252-254; Opler, M.G., Susser, E.S., Fetal environment and schizophrenia (2005) Environ Health Persp, 113, pp. 1239-1242; Pinsky, L., Informative morphogenetic variants: minor congenital anomalies revisited (1985) Issues and reviews in teratology, 3. , Kalter H. (Ed), Plenum, New York; Rahman, Q., The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation (2005) Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 29, pp. 1057-1066; Shprintzen, R.J., Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: 30 years of study (2008) Dev Disabil Res Rev, 14, pp. 3-10; Smith, D.W., (1970) Recognizable patterns of human malformation, , WB Saunders, Philadelphia; Tényi, T., Trixler, M., Csábi, G., Minor physical anomalies in affective disorders. A review of the literature (2009) J Affect Disorders, 112, pp. 11-18; Tarrant, C.J., Jones, P.B., Precursors to schizophrenia: do biological markers have specificity? (1999) Can J Psychiat, 44, pp. 335-349; Trixler, M., Tényi, T., Csábi, G., Szabó, G., Méhes, K., Informative morphogenetic variants in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol-dependent patients: beyond the Waldrop scale (1997) Am J Psychiat, 154, pp. 691-693; Trixler, M., Tényi, T., Csábi, G., Szabó, R., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (2001) Schizophr Res, 52, pp. 195-201; Villavicencio, E.H., Walterhouse, D.O., Iannaccone, P.M., The sonic hedgehog-patched-gli pathway in human development and disease (2000) Am J Human Genet, 67, pp. 1047-1054; Waldrop, M.F., Pedersen, F.A., Bell, R.Q., Minor physical anomalies and behavior in preschool children (1968) Child Dev, 39, pp. 391-400; Weinberger, D.R., Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (1987) Archs Gen Psychiat, 44, pp. 660-669; Weinberg, S.M., Jenkins, E.A., Marazita, M.L., Maher, B.S., Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis (2007) Schizophr Res, 89, pp. 72-85; Williams, T.J., Pepitone, M.E., Christensen, S.E., Cooke, B.M., Huberman, A.D., Breedlove, N.J., Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation (2000) Nature, 404, pp. 455-456; Yoshitsugu, K., Yamada, K., Toyota, T., Aoki-Suzuki, M., Minabe, Y., Nakamura, K., A novel scale including strabismus and 'cuspidal ear' for distinguishing schizophrenia patients from controls using minor physical anomalies (2006) Psychiat Res, 145, pp. 249-258

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Neuro-developmental hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia is originated from aberrant brain development during first and/or early trimester of gestation. Accordingly, when a schizophrenia gene is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and continues to play a role in the later life, it may result in the co-occurrence of defective organ systems and/or physiological functions with schizophrenia. We proposed a checklist with 13 morphological features and examine their prevalence rates in 151 schizophrenic patients and 151 controls. Statistical analyses showed that single transverse palmar crease, head circumference, covered epicanthus, finger length difference, and inner canthus distance, made significant contributions to schizophrenia. To rule out the age confounding effects on morphological features, we dropped older schizophrenic subjects and younger controls in further regression analysis. The regression model correctly classified 82.8% of control subjects (specificity) and 86.4% of schizophrenic patients (sensitivity), and provided an overall successful classification rate of 84.5%, with single transverse palmar crease on the first rank. The association of morphological features and schizophrenia is probably genetic in origin, as specific morphological features were more frequent in non-affected parents with higher genetic loading of schizophrenia. In addition, the association of finger length difference in schizophrenia found in this study has never been reported elsewhere. Our study showed that five out of 13 morphological features in the propose checklist may be used as biomarkers for schizophrenia, either for clinical practice or research purposes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Neuro-developmental hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia is originated from aberrant brain development during first and/or early trimester of gestation. Accordingly, when a schizophrenia gene is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and continues to play a role in the later life, it may result in the co-occurrence of defective organ systems and/or physiological functions with schizophrenia. We proposed a checklist with 13 morphological features and examine their prevalence rates in 151 schizophrenic patients and 151 controls. Statistical analyses showed that single transverse palmar crease, head circumference, covered epicanthus, finger length difference, and inner canthus distance, made significant contributions to schizophrenia. To rule out the age confounding effects on morphological features, we dropped older schizophrenic subjects and younger controls in further regression analysis. The regression model correctly classified 82.8% of control subjects (specificity) and 86.4% of schizophrenic patients (sensitivity), and provided an overall successful classification rate of 84.5%, with single transverse palmar crease on the first rank. The association of morphological features and schizophrenia is probably genetic in origin, as specific morphological features were more frequent in non-affected parents with higher genetic loading of schizophrenia. In addition, the association of finger length difference in schizophrenia found in this study has never been reported elsewhere. Our study showed that five out of 13 morphological features in the propose checklist may be used as biomarkers for schizophrenia, either for clinical practice or research purposes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - Embryo

KW - Minor physical anomalies

KW - Morphological features

KW - Neuro-developmental hypothesis

KW - Schizophrenia

KW - Waldrop scale

KW - adult

KW - article

KW - Chinese

KW - controlled study

KW - epicanthus

KW - female

KW - head circumference

KW - human

KW - major clinical study

KW - male

KW - morphology

KW - population research

KW - prevalence

KW - priority journal

KW - reliability

KW - schizophrenia

KW - sensitivity and specificity

KW - statistical analysis

KW - Adult

KW - Asian Continental Ancestry Group

KW - Checklist

KW - Extremities

KW - Female

KW - Head

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Reproducibility of Results

KW - Schizophrenic Psychology

KW - Statistics, Nonparametric

U2 - 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.06.004

DO - 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.06.004

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 63

EP - 68

JO - Journal of Psychiatric Research

JF - Journal of Psychiatric Research

SN - 0022-3956

IS - 2

ER -