Abstract

Shikonin is a traditional Oriental medical herb extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Many studies have shown that shikonin possesses anticancer ability against many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, tumor metastasis has been become an important clinical obstacle. However, the effect of shikonin on metastasis by HCC is unknown. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of shikonin on HCC cells was determined by an MTT assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. The migratory ability of HCC cells was detected by a transwell migration assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) expression levels were determined by Western blotting, and the activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by gelatin zymography. We found that IC 50 values of HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells to shikonin treatment were around 2 μM. Exposure to a low dose of shikonin (0-0.4 μM) did not influence the survival of HCC cells. Interestingly, exposure to a low dose of shikonin inhibited the migratory ability on HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells. To further dissect the mechanism, we found that treatment with a low dose of shikonin reduced the activities and expression levels of MMP-2 and -9, which were correlated with the decreased cell migratory ability of HCC cells. In addition, we found a decrease of vimnetin expression, but no influence on the expression levels of N-cadherin, TWIST, or GRP78. In mechanism dissecting, we found that shikonin treatment may suppress the phosphorylation of AKT and then reduce the NF-κB (NF = nuclear factor) levels, but has no influence on the levels of c-Fos and c-Jun. Furthermore, we also found that shikonin may also reduce the phosphorylation of IκB. We concluded that a low dose of shikonin can suppress the migratory ability of HCC cells through downregulation of expression levels of vimentin and MMP-2 and -9. Our findings suggest that shikonin may be a new compound to prevent the migration of HCC cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8191-8197
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume61
Issue number34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 28 2013

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hepatoma
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cells
gelatinase A
cells
Matrix Metalloproteinases
inhibitory concentration 50
Phosphorylation
biosensors
Biosensing Techniques
dosage
Biosensors
metastasis
Inhibitory Concentration 50
shikonin
Assays
phosphorylation
Lithospermum
Lithospermum erythrorhizon
Neoplasm Metastasis

Keywords

  • EMT
  • HCC
  • metastasis
  • migration
  • vimentin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Shikonin suppresses the migratory ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. / Wei, Po Li; Tu, Chao Chiang; Chen, Ching Hsein; Ho, Yuan Soon; Wu, Chun Te; Su, Hou Yu; Chen, Wei Yu; Liu, Jun Jen; Chang, Yu Jia.

In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 61, No. 34, 28.08.2013, p. 8191-8197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Shikonin is a traditional Oriental medical herb extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Many studies have shown that shikonin possesses anticancer ability against many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, tumor metastasis has been become an important clinical obstacle. However, the effect of shikonin on metastasis by HCC is unknown. The 50{\%} inhibitory concentration (IC50) of shikonin on HCC cells was determined by an MTT assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. The migratory ability of HCC cells was detected by a transwell migration assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) expression levels were determined by Western blotting, and the activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by gelatin zymography. We found that IC 50 values of HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells to shikonin treatment were around 2 μM. Exposure to a low dose of shikonin (0-0.4 μM) did not influence the survival of HCC cells. Interestingly, exposure to a low dose of shikonin inhibited the migratory ability on HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells. To further dissect the mechanism, we found that treatment with a low dose of shikonin reduced the activities and expression levels of MMP-2 and -9, which were correlated with the decreased cell migratory ability of HCC cells. In addition, we found a decrease of vimnetin expression, but no influence on the expression levels of N-cadherin, TWIST, or GRP78. In mechanism dissecting, we found that shikonin treatment may suppress the phosphorylation of AKT and then reduce the NF-κB (NF = nuclear factor) levels, but has no influence on the levels of c-Fos and c-Jun. Furthermore, we also found that shikonin may also reduce the phosphorylation of IκB. We concluded that a low dose of shikonin can suppress the migratory ability of HCC cells through downregulation of expression levels of vimentin and MMP-2 and -9. Our findings suggest that shikonin may be a new compound to prevent the migration of HCC cells.",
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author = "Wei, {Po Li} and Tu, {Chao Chiang} and Chen, {Ching Hsein} and Ho, {Yuan Soon} and Wu, {Chun Te} and Su, {Hou Yu} and Chen, {Wei Yu} and Liu, {Jun Jen} and Chang, {Yu Jia}",
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T1 - Shikonin suppresses the migratory ability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

AU - Wei, Po Li

AU - Tu, Chao Chiang

AU - Chen, Ching Hsein

AU - Ho, Yuan Soon

AU - Wu, Chun Te

AU - Su, Hou Yu

AU - Chen, Wei Yu

AU - Liu, Jun Jen

AU - Chang, Yu Jia

PY - 2013/8/28

Y1 - 2013/8/28

N2 - Shikonin is a traditional Oriental medical herb extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Many studies have shown that shikonin possesses anticancer ability against many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, tumor metastasis has been become an important clinical obstacle. However, the effect of shikonin on metastasis by HCC is unknown. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of shikonin on HCC cells was determined by an MTT assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. The migratory ability of HCC cells was detected by a transwell migration assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) expression levels were determined by Western blotting, and the activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by gelatin zymography. We found that IC 50 values of HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells to shikonin treatment were around 2 μM. Exposure to a low dose of shikonin (0-0.4 μM) did not influence the survival of HCC cells. Interestingly, exposure to a low dose of shikonin inhibited the migratory ability on HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells. To further dissect the mechanism, we found that treatment with a low dose of shikonin reduced the activities and expression levels of MMP-2 and -9, which were correlated with the decreased cell migratory ability of HCC cells. In addition, we found a decrease of vimnetin expression, but no influence on the expression levels of N-cadherin, TWIST, or GRP78. In mechanism dissecting, we found that shikonin treatment may suppress the phosphorylation of AKT and then reduce the NF-κB (NF = nuclear factor) levels, but has no influence on the levels of c-Fos and c-Jun. Furthermore, we also found that shikonin may also reduce the phosphorylation of IκB. We concluded that a low dose of shikonin can suppress the migratory ability of HCC cells through downregulation of expression levels of vimentin and MMP-2 and -9. Our findings suggest that shikonin may be a new compound to prevent the migration of HCC cells.

AB - Shikonin is a traditional Oriental medical herb extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Many studies have shown that shikonin possesses anticancer ability against many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, tumor metastasis has been become an important clinical obstacle. However, the effect of shikonin on metastasis by HCC is unknown. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of shikonin on HCC cells was determined by an MTT assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. The migratory ability of HCC cells was detected by a transwell migration assay and the xCELLigence biosensor system. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) expression levels were determined by Western blotting, and the activities of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by gelatin zymography. We found that IC 50 values of HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells to shikonin treatment were around 2 μM. Exposure to a low dose of shikonin (0-0.4 μM) did not influence the survival of HCC cells. Interestingly, exposure to a low dose of shikonin inhibited the migratory ability on HepJ5 and Mahlavu cells. To further dissect the mechanism, we found that treatment with a low dose of shikonin reduced the activities and expression levels of MMP-2 and -9, which were correlated with the decreased cell migratory ability of HCC cells. In addition, we found a decrease of vimnetin expression, but no influence on the expression levels of N-cadherin, TWIST, or GRP78. In mechanism dissecting, we found that shikonin treatment may suppress the phosphorylation of AKT and then reduce the NF-κB (NF = nuclear factor) levels, but has no influence on the levels of c-Fos and c-Jun. Furthermore, we also found that shikonin may also reduce the phosphorylation of IκB. We concluded that a low dose of shikonin can suppress the migratory ability of HCC cells through downregulation of expression levels of vimentin and MMP-2 and -9. Our findings suggest that shikonin may be a new compound to prevent the migration of HCC cells.

KW - EMT

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