Sex differences in otolaryngology: Focus on the emerging role of estrogens in inflammatory and pro-resolving responses

Sheng Dean Luo, Tai Jan Chiu, Wei Chih Chen, Ching Shuen Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Otolaryngology (also known as ear, nose, and throat (ENT)) diseases can be significantly affected by the level of sex hormones, which indicates that sex differences affect the manifestation, pathophysiology, and outcomes of these diseases. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that proinflammatory responses in ENT diseases are linked to the level of sex hormones. The sex hormone receptors are present on a wide variety of immune cells; therefore, it is evident that they play crucial roles in regulating the immune system and hence affect the disease progression of ENT diseases. In this review, we focus on how sex hormones, particularly estrogens, regulate ENT diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis, vocal fold polyps, thyroid cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome, and head and neck cancers, from the perspectives of inflammatory responses and specialized proresolving mediator-driven resolution. This paper aims to clarify why considering sex differences in the field of basic and medical research on otolaryngology is a key component to successful therapy for both males and females in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8768
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume22
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2 2021

Keywords

  • ENT diseases
  • Estrogens
  • Formyl peptide receptor 2
  • Lipoxins
  • Otolaryngology
  • Resolution of inflammation
  • Resolvins
  • Sex difference
  • Sex hormone
  • Specialized lipid mediators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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