Hypothesis: Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 may be related to breast cancer progression. Design: Prospective study. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Sixty consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer undergoing surgery were prospectively included and evaluated. The control group consisted of 14 patients with benign breast tumors (7 with fibrocystic disease and 7 with fibroadenoma). Intervention: Venous blood samples were collected before the surgery. Sera were obtained by centrifugation and stored at -70°C until assayed. Serum concentrations of TGF-β1 were measured by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Data on primary tumor stage, age, estrogen receptor status, lymph node status, distant metastases, and TNM staging (according to the Union Internationale Centre le Cancer) were reviewed and recorded. Main Outcome Measures: Measurements of preoperative serum TGF-β1 levels in patients with breast cancer. Results: The mean±SD value of serum TGF-β1 in patients with invasive breast cancer was 498.7 ± 249.7 pg/mL and in the control group was 495.2 ± 225.5 pg/mL (P = .96). However, there were significantly higher serum levels of TGF-β1 in patients with more advanced lymph node status (P =.04), more advanced TNM stage (P =.005), and poorer histological grade (P = .02). In multivariate analysis, TNM staging (P = .02) was demonstrated to be the independent factor related to significantly higher serum levels of TGF-β1. Conclusions: Patients with more advanced TNM stages were shown to have higher serum TGF-β1 levels. Thus, serum TGF-β1 levels may reflect the severity of invasive breast cancer.
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