Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria

Oluyomi A. Sowemimo, Yueh Lun Lee, Samuel O. Asaolu, Ting Wu Chuang, Olaoluwa Pheabian Akinwale, Bolaji O. Badejoko, Vincent Pam Gyang, Timothy Nwafor, Emmanuel Henry, Chia Kwung Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 − 35 kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–29.90, p = 0.02), contact with dogs (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.40–7.20, p = 0.01) and parent's religion (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32–0.91, p = 0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p = 0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission with the consequent of visceral or ocular larva migrans and neurologic disorder in these children. The results also provide baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in Southwest Nigeria and the study recommends prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-89
Number of pages5
JournalActa Tropica
Volume173
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2017

Fingerprint

Toxocara canis
preschool children
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Preschool Children
serological surveys
Nigeria
risk factors
Toxocara
Infection
infection
toxocariasis
odds ratio
Toxocariasis
confidence interval
Odds Ratio
seroprevalence
Dogs
Confidence Intervals
dogs
regression analysis

Keywords

  • Human toxocariasis
  • Nigeria
  • Preschool children
  • Risk factors
  • Seroprevalence
  • Toxocara canis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria. / Sowemimo, Oluyomi A.; Lee, Yueh Lun; Asaolu, Samuel O.; Chuang, Ting Wu; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian; Badejoko, Bolaji O.; Gyang, Vincent Pam; Nwafor, Timothy; Henry, Emmanuel; Fan, Chia Kwung.

In: Acta Tropica, Vol. 173, 01.09.2017, p. 85-89.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sowemimo, Oluyomi A. ; Lee, Yueh Lun ; Asaolu, Samuel O. ; Chuang, Ting Wu ; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian ; Badejoko, Bolaji O. ; Gyang, Vincent Pam ; Nwafor, Timothy ; Henry, Emmanuel ; Fan, Chia Kwung. / Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria. In: Acta Tropica. 2017 ; Vol. 173. pp. 85-89.
@article{68b1ae501c2c46f39ff67d6624b9613a,
title = "Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria",
abstract = "Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2{\%} (164/308) male and 46.8{\%} (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 − 35 kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3{\%}. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2{\%} in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6{\%} in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–29.90, p = 0.02), contact with dogs (OR = 3.17, 95{\%} CI = 1.40–7.20, p = 0.01) and parent's religion (OR = 0.54, 95{\%} CI = 0.32–0.91, p = 0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p = 0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18{\%} of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission with the consequent of visceral or ocular larva migrans and neurologic disorder in these children. The results also provide baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in Southwest Nigeria and the study recommends prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene.",
keywords = "Human toxocariasis, Nigeria, Preschool children, Risk factors, Seroprevalence, Toxocara canis",
author = "Sowemimo, {Oluyomi A.} and Lee, {Yueh Lun} and Asaolu, {Samuel O.} and Chuang, {Ting Wu} and Akinwale, {Olaoluwa Pheabian} and Badejoko, {Bolaji O.} and Gyang, {Vincent Pam} and Timothy Nwafor and Emmanuel Henry and Fan, {Chia Kwung}",
year = "2017",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.030",
language = "English",
volume = "173",
pages = "85--89",
journal = "Acta Tropica",
issn = "0001-706X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria

AU - Sowemimo, Oluyomi A.

AU - Lee, Yueh Lun

AU - Asaolu, Samuel O.

AU - Chuang, Ting Wu

AU - Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian

AU - Badejoko, Bolaji O.

AU - Gyang, Vincent Pam

AU - Nwafor, Timothy

AU - Henry, Emmanuel

AU - Fan, Chia Kwung

PY - 2017/9/1

Y1 - 2017/9/1

N2 - Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 − 35 kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–29.90, p = 0.02), contact with dogs (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.40–7.20, p = 0.01) and parent's religion (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32–0.91, p = 0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p = 0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission with the consequent of visceral or ocular larva migrans and neurologic disorder in these children. The results also provide baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in Southwest Nigeria and the study recommends prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene.

AB - Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 − 35 kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children's age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–29.90, p = 0.02), contact with dogs (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.40–7.20, p = 0.01) and parent's religion (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32–0.91, p = 0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p = 0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission with the consequent of visceral or ocular larva migrans and neurologic disorder in these children. The results also provide baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in Southwest Nigeria and the study recommends prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene.

KW - Human toxocariasis

KW - Nigeria

KW - Preschool children

KW - Risk factors

KW - Seroprevalence

KW - Toxocara canis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85020279082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85020279082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.030

DO - 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.030

M3 - Article

C2 - 28591555

AN - SCOPUS:85020279082

VL - 173

SP - 85

EP - 89

JO - Acta Tropica

JF - Acta Tropica

SN - 0001-706X

ER -