Second-hand smoke and its synergistic effect with a body-mass index of >24.9 kg/m2 increase the risk of gout arthritis in indonesia

Maria Dyah Kurniasari, Ferry Fredy Karwur, Rosiana Eva Rayanti, Edi Dharmana, Yohanes Andy Rias, Kuei Ru Chou, Hsiu Ting Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

To analyze the association between smoking status (active smoking and exposure to Second-Hand Smoking (SHS)) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI with gout risk, a community-based case-control design was undertaken among 385 participants, including 304 healthy controls and 81 gout patients from seven community health services. Adjusted Odd Ratios (AORs) and 95% Confidence Interval (CIs) of gout for active smoking and SHS were 3.26 (95% CI = 1.07~9.90) and 4.67 (95% CI = 2.18~10.00) compared to non-smokers. Time-dependent manner of active smoking and SHS significantly increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 5.95 (1.41~25.03) and 10.12 (3.51~29.14). Dose-dependency of active smokers and SHS showed AORs and 95% CIs of 5.15 (1.28~20.63) and 4.37 (1.33~14.28). Smoking 20 cigarettes (one pack) per day for one year is equivalent to one pack-year. Active smoking >20 pack-year and SHS > 26.5 pack-year increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 7.18 (1.53~33.67) and 9.95 (3.64~27.22). Participants who smoked (active smoking and SHS) and with Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 24.9 kg/m2 synergistically increased gout risk, with an AOR of 9.65 and 95% CI of 3.25~28.65, compared to BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 and non-smoker. Smoking status (active smoking and SHS) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI increased gout risk in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4324
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume18
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2 2021

Keywords

  • Body-mass index
  • Gouty arthritis
  • Indonesian
  • Second-hand smoke
  • Synergistic effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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