Salvianolic acid A alleviates ischemic brain injury through the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis and the promotion of neurogenesis in mice

Mei Yin Chien, Cheng Hung Chuang, Chang Ming Chern, Kou Tong Liou, Der Zen Liu, Yu Chang Hou, Yuh Chiang Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Salvianolic acid A (SalA), a chemical type of caffeic acid trimer, has drawn great attention for its potent bioactivities against ischemia-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated SalA's protective effects against acute ischemic stroke by inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) injuries in mice. Treatment of the mice with SalA (50 and 100 μg/kg, i.v.) at 2 h after MCAO enhanced their survival rate, improved their moving activity, and ameliorated the severity of brain infarction and apoptosis seen in the mice by diminishing pathological changes such as the extensive breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), nitrosative stress, and the activation of an inflammatory transcriptional factor p65 nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and a pro-apoptotic kinase p25/Cdk5. SalA also intensively limited cortical infarction and promoted the expression of neurogenesis protein near the peri-infarct cortex and subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus by compromising the activation of GSK3β and p25/Cdk5, which in turn upregulated β-catenin, doublecortin (DCX), and Bcl-2, most possibly through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling via the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We conclude that SalA blocks inflammatory responses by impairing NF-κB signaling, thereby limiting inflammation/nitrosative stress and preserving the integrity of the BBB; SalA also concomitantly promotes neurogenesis-related protein expression by compromising GSK3β/Cdk5 activity to enhance the expression levels of β-catenin/DCX and Bcl-2 for neuroprotection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-519
Number of pages12
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume99
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016

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Neurogenesis
Brain Injuries
Brain
Apoptosis
Inflammation
Catenins
NF-kappa B
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction
Chemical activation
Blood-Brain Barrier
Brain Infarction
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Dentate Gyrus
Bioactivity
Reperfusion Injury
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
Infarction
Transcriptional Activation
Reperfusion

Keywords

  • Cdk5, doublecortin
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Salvianolic acid A (SalA)
  • β-catenin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Salvianolic acid A alleviates ischemic brain injury through the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis and the promotion of neurogenesis in mice. / Chien, Mei Yin; Chuang, Cheng Hung; Chern, Chang Ming; Liou, Kou Tong; Liu, Der Zen; Hou, Yu Chang; Shen, Yuh Chiang.

In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 99, 01.10.2016, p. 508-519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chien, Mei Yin ; Chuang, Cheng Hung ; Chern, Chang Ming ; Liou, Kou Tong ; Liu, Der Zen ; Hou, Yu Chang ; Shen, Yuh Chiang. / Salvianolic acid A alleviates ischemic brain injury through the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis and the promotion of neurogenesis in mice. In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 99. pp. 508-519.
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AU - Chuang, Cheng Hung

AU - Chern, Chang Ming

AU - Liou, Kou Tong

AU - Liu, Der Zen

AU - Hou, Yu Chang

AU - Shen, Yuh Chiang

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