RSK promotes prostate cancer progression in bone through ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6-mediated cell survival

Guoyu Yu, Yu Chen Lee, Chien Jui Cheng, Chuan Fen Wu, Jian H. Song, Gary E. Gallick, Li Yuan Yu-Lee, Jian Kuang, Sue Hwa Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prostate cancer has a proclivity to metastasize to bone. The mechanism by which prostate cancer cells are able to survive and progress in the bone microenvironment is not clear. Identification of molecules that play critical roles in the progression of prostate cancer in bone will provide essential targets for therapy. Ribosomal S6 protein kinases (RSK) have been shown to mediate many cellular functions critical for cancer progression. Whether RSK plays a role in the progression of prostate cancer in bone is unknown. IHC analysis of human prostate cancer specimens showed increased phosphorylation of RSK in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells in a significant fraction of human prostate cancer bone metastasis specimens, compared with the primary site or lymph node metastasis. Expression of constitutively active myristylated RSK in C4-2B4 cells (C4-2B4/RSK) increased their survival and anchorage-independent growth compared with C4-2B4/vector cells. Using an orthotopic bone injection model, it was determined that injecting C4-2B4/RSK cells into mouse femurs enhanced their progression in bone compared with control cells. In PC3-mm2 cells, knockdown of RSK1 (RPS6KA1), the predominant RSK isoform, but not RSK2 (RPS6KA2) alone, decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and reduced tumor progression in bone and tumor-induced bone remodeling in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that RSK regulates anchorage-independent growth through transcriptional regulation of factors that modulate cell survival, including ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6. Together, these data provide strong evidence that RSK is an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone. Implications: RSK, an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone, has promising potential as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer bone metastasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)348-357
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular Cancer Research
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2015

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Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Prostatic Neoplasms
Cell Survival
Bone and Bones
Bone Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Growth
S 6
Neoplasms
Bone Remodeling
Femur
Protein Isoforms
Lymph Nodes
Phosphorylation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

RSK promotes prostate cancer progression in bone through ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6-mediated cell survival. / Yu, Guoyu; Lee, Yu Chen; Cheng, Chien Jui; Wu, Chuan Fen; Song, Jian H.; Gallick, Gary E.; Yu-Lee, Li Yuan; Kuang, Jian; Lin, Sue Hwa.

In: Molecular Cancer Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, 01.02.2015, p. 348-357.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yu, Guoyu ; Lee, Yu Chen ; Cheng, Chien Jui ; Wu, Chuan Fen ; Song, Jian H. ; Gallick, Gary E. ; Yu-Lee, Li Yuan ; Kuang, Jian ; Lin, Sue Hwa. / RSK promotes prostate cancer progression in bone through ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6-mediated cell survival. In: Molecular Cancer Research. 2015 ; Vol. 13, No. 2. pp. 348-357.
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abstract = "Prostate cancer has a proclivity to metastasize to bone. The mechanism by which prostate cancer cells are able to survive and progress in the bone microenvironment is not clear. Identification of molecules that play critical roles in the progression of prostate cancer in bone will provide essential targets for therapy. Ribosomal S6 protein kinases (RSK) have been shown to mediate many cellular functions critical for cancer progression. Whether RSK plays a role in the progression of prostate cancer in bone is unknown. IHC analysis of human prostate cancer specimens showed increased phosphorylation of RSK in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells in a significant fraction of human prostate cancer bone metastasis specimens, compared with the primary site or lymph node metastasis. Expression of constitutively active myristylated RSK in C4-2B4 cells (C4-2B4/RSK) increased their survival and anchorage-independent growth compared with C4-2B4/vector cells. Using an orthotopic bone injection model, it was determined that injecting C4-2B4/RSK cells into mouse femurs enhanced their progression in bone compared with control cells. In PC3-mm2 cells, knockdown of RSK1 (RPS6KA1), the predominant RSK isoform, but not RSK2 (RPS6KA2) alone, decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and reduced tumor progression in bone and tumor-induced bone remodeling in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that RSK regulates anchorage-independent growth through transcriptional regulation of factors that modulate cell survival, including ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6. Together, these data provide strong evidence that RSK is an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone. Implications: RSK, an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone, has promising potential as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer bone metastasis.",
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