Routine intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: application of the 2016 WSES guidelines for predicting choledocholithiasis

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Abstract

Background: Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for detecting common bile duct stones remains controversial. The 2016 World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis proposed a risk stratification for choledocholithiasis. Our present study aimed to (1) examine the findings of common bile duct (CBD) stones in patients underwent LC with routine use of IOC, and (2) validate the 2016 WSES risk classes for predicting choledocholithiasis. Methods: All patients had LC with IOC routinely performed from November 2012 to December 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were classified into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups based on the 2016 WSES risk classes with modification. Results: A total of 990 patients with LC and routine IOC were enrolled. CBD stones were detected in 197 (19.9%) patients. The rate of CBD stone detected in low-, intermediate-, high-risk groups were 0%, 14.2%, and 89.6%, respectively. Predictors as following: evidence of CBD stones on abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography, CBD diameter > 6 mm, total bilirubin > 4 mg/dL, bilirubin level = 1.8–4 mg/dL, abnormal liver biochemical test result other than bilirubin, presence of clinical gallstone pancreatitis had statistical significance between patients with and without CBD stones. Major bile duct injury was found in 4 patients (0.4%). All 4 patients had uneventful recovery after repair surgery. Conclusions: Based on our study results, the 2016 WSES risk classes for choledocholithiasis could be an effective approach for predicting the risk of choledocholithiasis. Considering its advantages for detecting CBD stones and biliary injuries, the routine use of IOC is still suggested.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurgical endoscopy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Bile duct injury
  • Choledocholithiasis
  • Common bile duct stone
  • Intraoperative cholangiography
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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