Roles of micrornas in regulating cancer stemness in head and neck cancers

Melysa Fitriana, Wei Lun Hwang, Pak Yue Chan, Tai Yuan Hsueh, Tsai Tsen Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are epithelial malignancies with 5-year overall survival rates of approximately 40–50%. Emerging evidence indicates that a small population of cells in HNSCC patients, named cancer stem cells (CSCs), play vital roles in the processes of tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, immune evasion, chemo-/radioresistance, and recur-rence. The acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells further provides cellular plasticity for stress adaptation and contributes to therapeutic resistance, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. Thus, targeting cancer stemness is fundamental for cancer treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate stem cell features in the development and tissue regeneration through a miRNA– target interactive network. In HNSCCs, miRNAs act as tumor suppressors and/or oncogenes to modulate cancer stemness and therapeutic efficacy by regulating the CSC-specific tumor microen-vironment (TME) and signaling pathways, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling pathways. Owing to a deeper understanding of disease-relevant miR-NAs and advances in in vivo delivery systems, the administration of miRNA-based therapeutics is feasible and safe in humans, with encouraging efficacy results in early-phase clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the present findings to better understand the mechanical actions of miRNAs in maintaining CSCs and acquiring the stem-like features of cancer cells during HNSCC pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1742
JournalCancers
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2021

Keywords

  • Cancer stem cell
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
  • MicroRNA
  • Stemness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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