Role of tissue transglutaminase 2 in the acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype in highly invasive A431 tumor cells

Chun Yu Lin, Pei Hsun Tsai, Chithan C. Kandaswami, Geen Dong Chang, Chia Hsiung Cheng, Chang Jen Huang, Ping Ping Lee, Jiuan Jiuan Hwang, Ming Ting Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cancer progression is closely linked to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Studies have shown that there is increased expression of tissue tranglutaminase (TG2) in advanced invasive cancer cells. TG2 catalyzes the covalent cross-linking of proteins, exhibits G protein activity, and has been implicated in the modulation of cell adhesion, migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. This study explores the molecular mechanisms associated with TG2's involvement in the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype using the highly invasive A431-III subline and its parental A431-P cells.Results: The A431-III tumor subline displays increased expression of TG2. This is accompanied by enhanced expression of the mesenchymal phenotype, and this expression is reversed by knockdown of endogenous TG2. Consistent with this, overexpression of TG2 in A431-P cells advanced the EMT process. Furthermore, TG2 induced the PI3K/Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation in A431 tumor cells and this increased Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in higher cell motility. TG2 also upregulated NF-κB activity, which also enhanced Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in greater cell motility; interestingly, this was associated with the formation of a TG2/NF-κB complex. TG2 facilitated acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, which was reversed by inhibitors of PI3K, GSK3 and NF-κB.Conclusions: This study reveals that TG2 acts, at least in part, through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling systems, which then induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 that facilitate the attainment of a mesenchymal phenotype. These findings support the possibility that TG2 is a promising target for cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number87
JournalMolecular Cancer
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 21 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Phenotype
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
Cell Movement
Neoplasms
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
GTP-Binding Proteins
Cell Adhesion
transglutaminase 2
Neoplasm Metastasis
Proteins
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Migration
  • NF-κB
  • PI3K/Akt
  • Snail
  • Tissue transglutaminase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology

Cite this

Role of tissue transglutaminase 2 in the acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype in highly invasive A431 tumor cells. / Lin, Chun Yu; Tsai, Pei Hsun; Kandaswami, Chithan C.; Chang, Geen Dong; Cheng, Chia Hsiung; Huang, Chang Jen; Lee, Ping Ping; Hwang, Jiuan Jiuan; Lee, Ming Ting.

In: Molecular Cancer, Vol. 10, 87, 21.07.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lin, Chun Yu ; Tsai, Pei Hsun ; Kandaswami, Chithan C. ; Chang, Geen Dong ; Cheng, Chia Hsiung ; Huang, Chang Jen ; Lee, Ping Ping ; Hwang, Jiuan Jiuan ; Lee, Ming Ting. / Role of tissue transglutaminase 2 in the acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype in highly invasive A431 tumor cells. In: Molecular Cancer. 2011 ; Vol. 10.
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abstract = "Background: Cancer progression is closely linked to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Studies have shown that there is increased expression of tissue tranglutaminase (TG2) in advanced invasive cancer cells. TG2 catalyzes the covalent cross-linking of proteins, exhibits G protein activity, and has been implicated in the modulation of cell adhesion, migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. This study explores the molecular mechanisms associated with TG2's involvement in the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype using the highly invasive A431-III subline and its parental A431-P cells.Results: The A431-III tumor subline displays increased expression of TG2. This is accompanied by enhanced expression of the mesenchymal phenotype, and this expression is reversed by knockdown of endogenous TG2. Consistent with this, overexpression of TG2 in A431-P cells advanced the EMT process. Furthermore, TG2 induced the PI3K/Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation in A431 tumor cells and this increased Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in higher cell motility. TG2 also upregulated NF-κB activity, which also enhanced Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in greater cell motility; interestingly, this was associated with the formation of a TG2/NF-κB complex. TG2 facilitated acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, which was reversed by inhibitors of PI3K, GSK3 and NF-κB.Conclusions: This study reveals that TG2 acts, at least in part, through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling systems, which then induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 that facilitate the attainment of a mesenchymal phenotype. These findings support the possibility that TG2 is a promising target for cancer therapy.",
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T1 - Role of tissue transglutaminase 2 in the acquisition of a mesenchymal-like phenotype in highly invasive A431 tumor cells

AU - Lin, Chun Yu

AU - Tsai, Pei Hsun

AU - Kandaswami, Chithan C.

AU - Chang, Geen Dong

AU - Cheng, Chia Hsiung

AU - Huang, Chang Jen

AU - Lee, Ping Ping

AU - Hwang, Jiuan Jiuan

AU - Lee, Ming Ting

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Y1 - 2011/7/21

N2 - Background: Cancer progression is closely linked to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Studies have shown that there is increased expression of tissue tranglutaminase (TG2) in advanced invasive cancer cells. TG2 catalyzes the covalent cross-linking of proteins, exhibits G protein activity, and has been implicated in the modulation of cell adhesion, migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. This study explores the molecular mechanisms associated with TG2's involvement in the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype using the highly invasive A431-III subline and its parental A431-P cells.Results: The A431-III tumor subline displays increased expression of TG2. This is accompanied by enhanced expression of the mesenchymal phenotype, and this expression is reversed by knockdown of endogenous TG2. Consistent with this, overexpression of TG2 in A431-P cells advanced the EMT process. Furthermore, TG2 induced the PI3K/Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation in A431 tumor cells and this increased Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in higher cell motility. TG2 also upregulated NF-κB activity, which also enhanced Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in greater cell motility; interestingly, this was associated with the formation of a TG2/NF-κB complex. TG2 facilitated acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, which was reversed by inhibitors of PI3K, GSK3 and NF-κB.Conclusions: This study reveals that TG2 acts, at least in part, through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling systems, which then induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 that facilitate the attainment of a mesenchymal phenotype. These findings support the possibility that TG2 is a promising target for cancer therapy.

AB - Background: Cancer progression is closely linked to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Studies have shown that there is increased expression of tissue tranglutaminase (TG2) in advanced invasive cancer cells. TG2 catalyzes the covalent cross-linking of proteins, exhibits G protein activity, and has been implicated in the modulation of cell adhesion, migration, invasion and cancer metastasis. This study explores the molecular mechanisms associated with TG2's involvement in the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype using the highly invasive A431-III subline and its parental A431-P cells.Results: The A431-III tumor subline displays increased expression of TG2. This is accompanied by enhanced expression of the mesenchymal phenotype, and this expression is reversed by knockdown of endogenous TG2. Consistent with this, overexpression of TG2 in A431-P cells advanced the EMT process. Furthermore, TG2 induced the PI3K/Akt activation and GSK3β inactivation in A431 tumor cells and this increased Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in higher cell motility. TG2 also upregulated NF-κB activity, which also enhanced Snail and MMP-9 expression resulting in greater cell motility; interestingly, this was associated with the formation of a TG2/NF-κB complex. TG2 facilitated acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, which was reversed by inhibitors of PI3K, GSK3 and NF-κB.Conclusions: This study reveals that TG2 acts, at least in part, through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling systems, which then induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 that facilitate the attainment of a mesenchymal phenotype. These findings support the possibility that TG2 is a promising target for cancer therapy.

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KW - Matrix metalloproteinase

KW - Migration

KW - NF-κB

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KW - Snail

KW - Tissue transglutaminase

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