This 3-year retrospective case-control study aimed to identify risk factors associated with unplanned endotracheal self-extubation (UESE) of hospitalized intubated patients and to compare unplanned and planned extubation groups' characteristics of patients and nurses, vital signs, serum laboratory values, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and use of physical restraints and sedatives. The study found that most UESEs occurred during evening or night shifts or during shifts staffed by nurses with less experience and less education. Most of the self-extubated patients (80%) were physically restrained. Pulse rate and APACHE II score were both significant predictors of UESE. Efforts to prevent UESEs should include identification of patients at higher risk.
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