Background and Aim: Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes, is a predisposing factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). This retrospective cohort study investigated the risk factors associated with the development of CRC in patients with MLH1 and MSH2 germline mutations. Methods: In total, 301 MLH1 and MSH2 germline mutation carriers were identified from the Amsterdam criteria family registry provided by the Taiwan Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Consortium. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between the risk factors and CRC development. A robust sandwich covariance estimation model was used to evaluate family dependence. Results: Among the total cohort, subjects of the Hakka ethnicity exhibited an increased CRC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.09-2.34); however, those who performed regular physical activity exhibited a decreased CRC risk (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.88). The CRC risk was enhanced in MLH1 germline mutation carriers, with corresponding HRs of 1.72 (95% CI = 1.16-2.55) and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.34-0.83) among subjects of the Hakka ethnicity and those who performed regular physical activity, respectively. In addition, the total cohort with a manual occupation had a 1.56 times higher CRC risk (95% CI = 1.07-2.27) than did that with a skilled occupation. Moreover, MSH2 germline mutation carriers with blood group type B exhibited an increased risk of CRC development (HR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.06-6.58) compared with those with blood group type O. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Hakka ethnicity, manual occupation, and blood group type B were associated with an increased CRC risk, whereas regular physical activity was associated with a decreased CRC risk in MLH1 and MSH2 germline mutation carriers.
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