The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates pathways in lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. Activation of FXR in mice significantly improved high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. It has been reported that activation of imidazoline I-1 receptor by rilmenidine increases the expression of FXR in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2 cell, to regulate the target genes relating to lipid metabolism; activation of FXR by rilmenidine exerts an antihyperlipidemic action. However, signals for this action of rilmenidine are still unknown. In the present study, hepatic steatosis induced in mice by high-fat diet was improved by rilmenidine after intraperitoneal injection at 1 mg/kg daily for 12 weeks. Also, mediation of I-1 receptors was identified using the specific antagonist efaroxan. Moreover, rilmenidine decreased the oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in Hep G2 cells. Otherwise, rilmenidine increased the phosphorylation of p38 to increase the expression of FXR. Deletion of calcium ions by BAPTA-AM reversed the rilmenidine-induced p38 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we suggest that rilmenidine activates I-1 receptor to increase intracellular calcium ions that may enhance the phosphorylation of p38 to higher the expression of FXR for improvement of hepatic steatosis in both animals and cells.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2012|
- Farnesoid X receptor
- Hepatic steatosis
- Imidazoline I-1 receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas