Resistant hypertension, patient characteristics, and risk of stroke

Chen Ying Hung, Kuo Yang Wang, Tsu Juey Wu, Yu Cheng Hsieh, Jin Long Huang, El Wui Loh, Ching Heng Lin

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14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Little is known about the prognosis of resistant hypertension (RH) in Asian population. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of RH in Taiwanese patients with hypertension, and to ascertain whether patient characteristics influence the association of RH with adverse outcomes. Methods and Results: Patients aged ≥45 years with hypertension were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical records of 111,986 patients were reviewed in this study, and 16,402 (14.6%) patients were recognized as having RH (continuously concomitant use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive medications, including a diuretic, for ≥2 years). Risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke [included both fatal and nonfatal events]) in patients with RH and non-RH was analyzed. A total of 11,856 patients experienced MACE in the follow-up period (average 7.1±3.0 years). There was a higher proportion of females in the RH group, they were older than the non-RH (63.1 vs. 60.5 years) patients, and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities. Overall, patients with RH had higher risks of MACE (adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.09-1.26; p<0.001). Significantly elevated risks of stroke (10,211 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 1.08-1.27; p<0.001), especially ischemic stroke (6,235 events; adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI 1.20-1.48; p<0.001), but not all-cause mortality (4,594 events; adjusted HR 1.06; 95%CI 0.95-1.19; p = 0.312) or acute coronary syndrome (2,145 events; adjusted HR 1.17; 95%CI 0.99-1.39; p = 0.070) were noted in patients with RH compared to those with non-RH. Subgroup analysis showed that RH increased the risks of stroke in female and elderly patients. However, no significant influence was noted in young or male patients. Conclusions: Patients with RH were associated with higher risks of MACE and stroke, especially ischemic stroke. The risks were greater in female and elderly patients than in male or young patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere104362
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 4 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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    Hung, C. Y., Wang, K. Y., Wu, T. J., Hsieh, Y. C., Huang, J. L., Loh, E. W., & Lin, C. H. (2014). Resistant hypertension, patient characteristics, and risk of stroke. PLoS One, 9(8), [e104362]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104362