Reorganization of functional connectivity during the motor task using EEG time-frequency cross mutual information analysis

Chia-Feng Lu, Shin Teng, Chih-I. Hung, Po-Jung Tseng, Liang-Ta Lin, Po-Lei Lee, Yu-Te Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: This study investigates the functional organization of cortical networks during self-determinant arm movement using the time sequences of the alpha (8-12. Hz) and beta (16-25. Hz) bands. Methods: The time-frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method was used to estimate the EEG functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands for seven healthy subjects during four functional states: the resting, preparing, movement-onset, and movement-offset states. Results: In the preparing state, the maintenance of the central-executive network (CEN, prefrontal-parietal connection) suppressed the motor network in the alpha band to plan the next movement, whereas the CEN was deactivated in the beta band to retain visual attention (the frontal-occipital connection). A significant decrease of the CEN in the alpha band occurred after a visual cue in the movement-onset state, followed by a significant increase in motor-network connectivity in the beta band until the movement-offset state. Conclusions: The temporal-spectral modulation mechanism allows the brain to manifest multiple functions subject to energy budget. Significance: The TFCMI method was employed to estimate EEG functional connectivity and effectively demonstrate the reorganization process between four functional states. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1569-1579
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Volume122
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • EEG
  • Motor task
  • Reorganization
  • TFCMI
  • alpha rhythm
  • article
  • beta rhythm
  • brain cortex
  • electroencephalography
  • executive function
  • female
  • human
  • human experiment
  • male
  • methodology
  • motor performance
  • normal human
  • priority journal
  • task performance
  • time frequency cross mutual information method
  • vision
  • Adult
  • Alpha Rhythm
  • Arm
  • Beta Rhythm
  • Brain
  • Brain Mapping
  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement
  • Neural Pathways
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Reorganization of functional connectivity during the motor task using EEG time-frequency cross mutual information analysis. / Lu, Chia-Feng; Teng, Shin; Hung, Chih-I.; Tseng, Po-Jung; Lin, Liang-Ta; Lee, Po-Lei; Wu, Yu-Te.

In: Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 122, No. 8, 2011, p. 1569-1579.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lu, Chia-Feng ; Teng, Shin ; Hung, Chih-I. ; Tseng, Po-Jung ; Lin, Liang-Ta ; Lee, Po-Lei ; Wu, Yu-Te. / Reorganization of functional connectivity during the motor task using EEG time-frequency cross mutual information analysis. In: Clinical Neurophysiology. 2011 ; Vol. 122, No. 8. pp. 1569-1579.
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title = "Reorganization of functional connectivity during the motor task using EEG time-frequency cross mutual information analysis",
abstract = "Objective: This study investigates the functional organization of cortical networks during self-determinant arm movement using the time sequences of the alpha (8-12. Hz) and beta (16-25. Hz) bands. Methods: The time-frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method was used to estimate the EEG functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands for seven healthy subjects during four functional states: the resting, preparing, movement-onset, and movement-offset states. Results: In the preparing state, the maintenance of the central-executive network (CEN, prefrontal-parietal connection) suppressed the motor network in the alpha band to plan the next movement, whereas the CEN was deactivated in the beta band to retain visual attention (the frontal-occipital connection). A significant decrease of the CEN in the alpha band occurred after a visual cue in the movement-onset state, followed by a significant increase in motor-network connectivity in the beta band until the movement-offset state. Conclusions: The temporal-spectral modulation mechanism allows the brain to manifest multiple functions subject to energy budget. Significance: The TFCMI method was employed to estimate EEG functional connectivity and effectively demonstrate the reorganization process between four functional states. {\circledC} 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.",
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author = "Chia-Feng Lu and Shin Teng and Chih-I. Hung and Po-Jung Tseng and Liang-Ta Lin and Po-Lei Lee and Yu-Te Wu",
note = "被引用次數:8 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: CNEUF 通訊地址: Wu, Y.-T.; Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Li-Nong Street, Section 2, Pei-Tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ytwu@ym.edu.tw 參考文獻: Andrew, C., Pfurtscheller, G., Lack of bilateral coherence of post-movement central beta oscillations in the human electroencephalogram (1999) Neurosci Lett, 273, pp. 89-92; Attwell, D., Laughlin, S.B., An energy budget for signaling in the grey matter of the brain (2001) J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 21, pp. 1133-1145; Bair, W., Koch, C., Temporal precision of spike trains in extrastriate cortex of the behaving macaque monkey (1996) Neural Comput, 8, pp. 1185-1202; Beckmann, C.F., DeLuca, M., Devlin, J.T., Smith, S.M., Investigations into resting-state connectivity using independent component analysis (2005) Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 360, pp. 1001-1013; Benjamini, Y., Hochberg, Y., Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing (1995) J R Stat Soc Ser B-Stat Methodol, 57, pp. 289-300; Buchel, C., Coull, J.T., Friston, K.J., The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning (1999) Science, 283, pp. 1538-1541; Burgess, A.P., Ali, L., Functional connectivity of gamma EEG activity is modulated at low frequency during conscious recollection (2002) Int J Psychophysiol, 46, pp. 91-100; Chen, C.C., Hsieh, J.C., Wu, Y.Z., Lee, P.L., Chen, S.S., Niddam, D.M., Mutual-information-based approach for neural connectivity during self-paced finger lifting task (2008) Hum Brain Mapp, 29, pp. 265-280; Franceschini, M.A., Boas, D.A., Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging (2004) Neuroimage, 21, pp. 372-386; Fransson, P., Spontaneous low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations: an fMRI investigation of the resting-state default mode of brain function hypothesis (2005) Hum Brain Mapp, 26, pp. 15-29; Fransson, P., Ski{\"o}ld, B., Horsch, S., Nordell, A., Blennow, M., Lagercrantz, H., Resting-state networks in the infant brain (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104, pp. 15531-15536; Fraser, A.M., Swinney, H.L., Independent coordinates for strange attractors from mutual information (1986) Phys Rev A, 33, p. 1134; Friston, K.J., Models of brain function in neuroimaging (2005) Annu Rev Psychol, 56, pp. 57-87; Gerloff, C., Richard, J., Hadley, J., Schulman, A., Honda, M., Hallett, M., Functional coupling and regional activation of human cortical motor areas during simple, internally paced and externally paced finger movements (1998) Brain, 121, pp. 1513-1531; Greicius, M.D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A.L., Menon, V., Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100, pp. 253-258; Jeong, J., Gore, J.C., Peterson, B.S., Mutual information analysis of the EEG in patients with Alzheimer's disease (2001) Clin Neurophysiol, 112, pp. 827-835; Jiang, T., He, Y., Zang, Y., Weng, X., Modulation of functional connectivity during the resting state and the motor task (2004) Hum Brain Mapp, 22, pp. 63-71; Johnson-Frey, S.H., Newman-Norlund, R., Grafton, S.T., A distributed left hemisphere network active during planning of everyday tool use skills (2005) Cereb Cortex, 15, pp. 681-695; Jokisch, D., Jensen, O., Modulation of gamma and alpha activity during a working memory task engaging the dorsal or ventral stream (2007) J Neurosci, 27, pp. 3244-3251; Jung, R.E., Haier, R.J., The parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence. converging neuroimaging evidence (2007) Behav Brain Sci, 30, pp. 135-154; Lee, P.-L., Wu, Y.-T., Chen, L.-F., Chen, Y.-S., Cheng, C.-M., Yeh, T.-C., ICA-based spatiotemporal approach for single-trial analysis of post movement MEG beta synchronization [small star, filled] (2003) Neuroimage, 20, pp. 2010-2030; Lennie, P., The cost of cortical computation (2003) Curr Biol, 13, pp. 493-497; Leocani, L., Toro, C., Manganotti, P., Zhuang, P., Hallett, M., Event-related coherence and event-related desynchronization/synchronization in the 10 Hz and 20 Hz EEG during self-paced movements (1997) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 104, pp. 199-206; Liu, Y., Gao, J.-H., Liotti, M., Pu, Y., Fox, P.T., Temporal dissociation of parallel processing in the human subcortical outputs (1999) Nature, 400, pp. 364-367; M{\"u}ller, K.-R., Krauledat, M., Dornhege, G., Curio, G., Blankertz, B., Machine learning techniques for brain-computer interfaces (2004) Biomed Tech, 49, pp. 11-22; M{\"u}ller, M.M., Gruber, T., Keil, A., Modulation of induced gamma band activity in the human EEG by attention and visual information processing (2000) Int J Psychophysiol, 38, pp. 283-299; Massimini, M., Ferrarelli, F., Huber, R., Esser, S.K., Singh, H., Tononi, G., Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep (2005) Science, 309, pp. 2228-2232; Micheloyannis, S., Pachou, E., Stam, C.J., Vourkas, M., Erimaki, S., Tsirka, V., Using graph theoretical analysis of multi channel EEG to evaluate the neural efficiency hypothesis (2006) Neurosci Lett, 402, pp. 273-277; Naghavi, H.R., Nyberg, L., Common fronto-parietal activity in attention, memory, and consciousness: shared demands on integration? (2005) Conscious Cogn, 14, pp. 390-425; Nunez, P.L., Srinivasan, R., Westdorp, A.F., Wijesinghe, R.S., Tucker, D.M., Silberstein, R.B., EEG coherency: I: statistics, reference electrode, volume conduction, Laplacians, cortical imaging, and interpretation at multiple scales (1997) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 103, pp. 499-515; Pfurtscheller, G., Lopes da Silva, F.H., Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles (1999) Clin Neurophysiol, 110, pp. 1842-1857; Pfurtscheller, G., Neuper, C., Event-related synchronization of mu rhythm in the EEG over the cortical hand area in man (1994) Neurosci Lett, 174, pp. 93-96; Pfurtscheller, G., Stanc{\'a}k, A., Neuper, C., Post-movement beta synchronization. A correlate of an idling motor area? (1996) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 98, pp. 281-293; Pfurtscheller, G., Zalaudek, K., Neuper, C., Event-related beta synchronization after wrist, finger and thumb movement (1998) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 109, pp. 154-160; Popivanov, D., Dushanova, J., Non-linear EEG dynamic changes and their probable relation to voluntary movement organization (1999) Neuroreport, 10, pp. 1397-1401; Raichle, M.E., Mintun, M.A., Brain work and brain imaging (2006) Annu Rev Neurosci, 29, pp. 449-476; Rappelsberger, P., Pfurtscheller, G., Filz, O., Calculation of event-related coherence-a new method to study short-lasting coupling between brain areas (1994) Brain Topogr, 7, pp. 121-127; Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Schwartz, T.H., Mahoney, J.R., Mehta, A.D., Javitt, D.C., A human intracranial study of long-range oscillatory coherence across a frontal-occipital-hippocampal brain network during visual object processing (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105, pp. 4399-4404; Serrien, D.J., Ivry, R.B., Swinnen, S.P., Dynamics of hemispheric specialization and integration in the context of motor control (2006) Nat Rev Neurosci, 7, pp. 160-166; Shannon, C., A mathematical theory of communication (1948) Bell Syst Tech J, 27, pp. 379-426; Sheline, Y.I., Price, J.L., Yan, Z., Mintun, M.A., Resting-state functional MRI in depression unmasks increased connectivity between networks via the dorsal nexus (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 107, pp. 11020-11025; Shulman, R.G., Rothman, D.L., Behar, K.L., Hyder, F., Energetic basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging (2004) Trends Neurosci, 27, pp. 489-495; Sklar, B., Hanley, J., Simmons, W.W., An EEG experiment aimed toward identifying dyslexic children (1972) Nature, 240, pp. 414-416; Sridharan, D., Levitin, D.J., Menon, V., A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105, pp. 12569-12574; Vialatte, F.B., Martin, C., Dubois, R., Haddad, J., Quenet, B., Gervais, R., A machine learning approach to the analysis of time-frequency maps, and its application to neural dynamics (2007) Neural Netw, 20, pp. 194-209; Worden, M.S., Foxe, J.J., Wang, N., Simpson, G.V., Anticipatory biasing of visuospatial attention indexed by retinotopically specific alpha -band electroencephalography increases over occipital cortex (2000) J Neurosci, 20 (RC63), pp. 1-6",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1016/j.clinph.2011.01.050",
language = "English",
volume = "122",
pages = "1569--1579",
journal = "Clinical Neurophysiology",
issn = "1388-2457",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reorganization of functional connectivity during the motor task using EEG time-frequency cross mutual information analysis

AU - Lu, Chia-Feng

AU - Teng, Shin

AU - Hung, Chih-I.

AU - Tseng, Po-Jung

AU - Lin, Liang-Ta

AU - Lee, Po-Lei

AU - Wu, Yu-Te

N1 - 被引用次數:8 Export Date: 31 March 2016 CODEN: CNEUF 通訊地址: Wu, Y.-T.; Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Li-Nong Street, Section 2, Pei-Tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan; 電子郵件: ytwu@ym.edu.tw 參考文獻: Andrew, C., Pfurtscheller, G., Lack of bilateral coherence of post-movement central beta oscillations in the human electroencephalogram (1999) Neurosci Lett, 273, pp. 89-92; Attwell, D., Laughlin, S.B., An energy budget for signaling in the grey matter of the brain (2001) J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 21, pp. 1133-1145; Bair, W., Koch, C., Temporal precision of spike trains in extrastriate cortex of the behaving macaque monkey (1996) Neural Comput, 8, pp. 1185-1202; Beckmann, C.F., DeLuca, M., Devlin, J.T., Smith, S.M., Investigations into resting-state connectivity using independent component analysis (2005) Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 360, pp. 1001-1013; Benjamini, Y., Hochberg, Y., Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing (1995) J R Stat Soc Ser B-Stat Methodol, 57, pp. 289-300; Buchel, C., Coull, J.T., Friston, K.J., The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning (1999) Science, 283, pp. 1538-1541; Burgess, A.P., Ali, L., Functional connectivity of gamma EEG activity is modulated at low frequency during conscious recollection (2002) Int J Psychophysiol, 46, pp. 91-100; Chen, C.C., Hsieh, J.C., Wu, Y.Z., Lee, P.L., Chen, S.S., Niddam, D.M., Mutual-information-based approach for neural connectivity during self-paced finger lifting task (2008) Hum Brain Mapp, 29, pp. 265-280; Franceschini, M.A., Boas, D.A., Noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with near-infrared optical imaging (2004) Neuroimage, 21, pp. 372-386; Fransson, P., Spontaneous low-frequency BOLD signal fluctuations: an fMRI investigation of the resting-state default mode of brain function hypothesis (2005) Hum Brain Mapp, 26, pp. 15-29; Fransson, P., Skiöld, B., Horsch, S., Nordell, A., Blennow, M., Lagercrantz, H., Resting-state networks in the infant brain (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104, pp. 15531-15536; Fraser, A.M., Swinney, H.L., Independent coordinates for strange attractors from mutual information (1986) Phys Rev A, 33, p. 1134; Friston, K.J., Models of brain function in neuroimaging (2005) Annu Rev Psychol, 56, pp. 57-87; Gerloff, C., Richard, J., Hadley, J., Schulman, A., Honda, M., Hallett, M., Functional coupling and regional activation of human cortical motor areas during simple, internally paced and externally paced finger movements (1998) Brain, 121, pp. 1513-1531; Greicius, M.D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A.L., Menon, V., Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100, pp. 253-258; Jeong, J., Gore, J.C., Peterson, B.S., Mutual information analysis of the EEG in patients with Alzheimer's disease (2001) Clin Neurophysiol, 112, pp. 827-835; Jiang, T., He, Y., Zang, Y., Weng, X., Modulation of functional connectivity during the resting state and the motor task (2004) Hum Brain Mapp, 22, pp. 63-71; Johnson-Frey, S.H., Newman-Norlund, R., Grafton, S.T., A distributed left hemisphere network active during planning of everyday tool use skills (2005) Cereb Cortex, 15, pp. 681-695; Jokisch, D., Jensen, O., Modulation of gamma and alpha activity during a working memory task engaging the dorsal or ventral stream (2007) J Neurosci, 27, pp. 3244-3251; Jung, R.E., Haier, R.J., The parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence. converging neuroimaging evidence (2007) Behav Brain Sci, 30, pp. 135-154; Lee, P.-L., Wu, Y.-T., Chen, L.-F., Chen, Y.-S., Cheng, C.-M., Yeh, T.-C., ICA-based spatiotemporal approach for single-trial analysis of post movement MEG beta synchronization [small star, filled] (2003) Neuroimage, 20, pp. 2010-2030; Lennie, P., The cost of cortical computation (2003) Curr Biol, 13, pp. 493-497; Leocani, L., Toro, C., Manganotti, P., Zhuang, P., Hallett, M., Event-related coherence and event-related desynchronization/synchronization in the 10 Hz and 20 Hz EEG during self-paced movements (1997) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 104, pp. 199-206; Liu, Y., Gao, J.-H., Liotti, M., Pu, Y., Fox, P.T., Temporal dissociation of parallel processing in the human subcortical outputs (1999) Nature, 400, pp. 364-367; Müller, K.-R., Krauledat, M., Dornhege, G., Curio, G., Blankertz, B., Machine learning techniques for brain-computer interfaces (2004) Biomed Tech, 49, pp. 11-22; Müller, M.M., Gruber, T., Keil, A., Modulation of induced gamma band activity in the human EEG by attention and visual information processing (2000) Int J Psychophysiol, 38, pp. 283-299; Massimini, M., Ferrarelli, F., Huber, R., Esser, S.K., Singh, H., Tononi, G., Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep (2005) Science, 309, pp. 2228-2232; Micheloyannis, S., Pachou, E., Stam, C.J., Vourkas, M., Erimaki, S., Tsirka, V., Using graph theoretical analysis of multi channel EEG to evaluate the neural efficiency hypothesis (2006) Neurosci Lett, 402, pp. 273-277; Naghavi, H.R., Nyberg, L., Common fronto-parietal activity in attention, memory, and consciousness: shared demands on integration? (2005) Conscious Cogn, 14, pp. 390-425; Nunez, P.L., Srinivasan, R., Westdorp, A.F., Wijesinghe, R.S., Tucker, D.M., Silberstein, R.B., EEG coherency: I: statistics, reference electrode, volume conduction, Laplacians, cortical imaging, and interpretation at multiple scales (1997) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 103, pp. 499-515; Pfurtscheller, G., Lopes da Silva, F.H., Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles (1999) Clin Neurophysiol, 110, pp. 1842-1857; Pfurtscheller, G., Neuper, C., Event-related synchronization of mu rhythm in the EEG over the cortical hand area in man (1994) Neurosci Lett, 174, pp. 93-96; Pfurtscheller, G., Stancák, A., Neuper, C., Post-movement beta synchronization. A correlate of an idling motor area? (1996) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 98, pp. 281-293; Pfurtscheller, G., Zalaudek, K., Neuper, C., Event-related beta synchronization after wrist, finger and thumb movement (1998) Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 109, pp. 154-160; Popivanov, D., Dushanova, J., Non-linear EEG dynamic changes and their probable relation to voluntary movement organization (1999) Neuroreport, 10, pp. 1397-1401; Raichle, M.E., Mintun, M.A., Brain work and brain imaging (2006) Annu Rev Neurosci, 29, pp. 449-476; Rappelsberger, P., Pfurtscheller, G., Filz, O., Calculation of event-related coherence-a new method to study short-lasting coupling between brain areas (1994) Brain Topogr, 7, pp. 121-127; Sehatpour, P., Molholm, S., Schwartz, T.H., Mahoney, J.R., Mehta, A.D., Javitt, D.C., A human intracranial study of long-range oscillatory coherence across a frontal-occipital-hippocampal brain network during visual object processing (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105, pp. 4399-4404; Serrien, D.J., Ivry, R.B., Swinnen, S.P., Dynamics of hemispheric specialization and integration in the context of motor control (2006) Nat Rev Neurosci, 7, pp. 160-166; Shannon, C., A mathematical theory of communication (1948) Bell Syst Tech J, 27, pp. 379-426; Sheline, Y.I., Price, J.L., Yan, Z., Mintun, M.A., Resting-state functional MRI in depression unmasks increased connectivity between networks via the dorsal nexus (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 107, pp. 11020-11025; Shulman, R.G., Rothman, D.L., Behar, K.L., Hyder, F., Energetic basis of brain activity: implications for neuroimaging (2004) Trends Neurosci, 27, pp. 489-495; Sklar, B., Hanley, J., Simmons, W.W., An EEG experiment aimed toward identifying dyslexic children (1972) Nature, 240, pp. 414-416; Sridharan, D., Levitin, D.J., Menon, V., A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105, pp. 12569-12574; Vialatte, F.B., Martin, C., Dubois, R., Haddad, J., Quenet, B., Gervais, R., A machine learning approach to the analysis of time-frequency maps, and its application to neural dynamics (2007) Neural Netw, 20, pp. 194-209; Worden, M.S., Foxe, J.J., Wang, N., Simpson, G.V., Anticipatory biasing of visuospatial attention indexed by retinotopically specific alpha -band electroencephalography increases over occipital cortex (2000) J Neurosci, 20 (RC63), pp. 1-6

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Objective: This study investigates the functional organization of cortical networks during self-determinant arm movement using the time sequences of the alpha (8-12. Hz) and beta (16-25. Hz) bands. Methods: The time-frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method was used to estimate the EEG functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands for seven healthy subjects during four functional states: the resting, preparing, movement-onset, and movement-offset states. Results: In the preparing state, the maintenance of the central-executive network (CEN, prefrontal-parietal connection) suppressed the motor network in the alpha band to plan the next movement, whereas the CEN was deactivated in the beta band to retain visual attention (the frontal-occipital connection). A significant decrease of the CEN in the alpha band occurred after a visual cue in the movement-onset state, followed by a significant increase in motor-network connectivity in the beta band until the movement-offset state. Conclusions: The temporal-spectral modulation mechanism allows the brain to manifest multiple functions subject to energy budget. Significance: The TFCMI method was employed to estimate EEG functional connectivity and effectively demonstrate the reorganization process between four functional states. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

AB - Objective: This study investigates the functional organization of cortical networks during self-determinant arm movement using the time sequences of the alpha (8-12. Hz) and beta (16-25. Hz) bands. Methods: The time-frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method was used to estimate the EEG functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands for seven healthy subjects during four functional states: the resting, preparing, movement-onset, and movement-offset states. Results: In the preparing state, the maintenance of the central-executive network (CEN, prefrontal-parietal connection) suppressed the motor network in the alpha band to plan the next movement, whereas the CEN was deactivated in the beta band to retain visual attention (the frontal-occipital connection). A significant decrease of the CEN in the alpha band occurred after a visual cue in the movement-onset state, followed by a significant increase in motor-network connectivity in the beta band until the movement-offset state. Conclusions: The temporal-spectral modulation mechanism allows the brain to manifest multiple functions subject to energy budget. Significance: The TFCMI method was employed to estimate EEG functional connectivity and effectively demonstrate the reorganization process between four functional states. © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.

KW - Alpha

KW - Beta

KW - EEG

KW - Motor task

KW - Reorganization

KW - TFCMI

KW - alpha rhythm

KW - article

KW - beta rhythm

KW - brain cortex

KW - electroencephalography

KW - executive function

KW - female

KW - human

KW - human experiment

KW - male

KW - methodology

KW - motor performance

KW - normal human

KW - priority journal

KW - task performance

KW - time frequency cross mutual information method

KW - vision

KW - Adult

KW - Alpha Rhythm

KW - Arm

KW - Beta Rhythm

KW - Brain

KW - Brain Mapping

KW - Electroencephalography

KW - Female

KW - Functional Laterality

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Movement

KW - Neural Pathways

KW - Photic Stimulation

KW - Time Factors

KW - Young Adult

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