We aimed to determine relationships between age and sex with cytokine content and distribution in human platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) gel. Rabbit PRF was harvested from whole blood (n = 6). Human PRF was collected from 36 healthy volunteers (1:1 men:women) without systemic diseases and not current undergoing medical treatment. Histological analysis and optical microscopy were used to assess the three-dimensional structure of the PRF network. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantification of adenosine triphosphate, and bioluminescence imaging of PRF sections were used to assess cytokine and entrapped platelet distribution. Three-dimensional structures of fibrin networks revealed concentration gradients of the platelet-derived growth factor beta beta homodimer and the transforming growth factor-beta 1. Histological analysis of PRF sections (from the red blood cell end to the plasma end of a clot) showed a gradual increase in average porosity, most prominently in PRF clots from young and middle-Aged men and women, and a decrease in compactness along the longitudinal axis of the PRF gel. The end of the PRF gel closest to the red blood cell layer is the essence of the PRF clot, and the ability to generate platelets depends on sex and age in humans.
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