Purpose To explore the wider determinant factor of citizens’ spirituality, health engagement, health belief model, and attitudes towards vaccines toward acceptance and willingness to pay for a Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Methods A community-based cross-sectional online investigation with convenience sampling was utilized to recruit 1423 citizens from 18 districts across Indonesia between December 14, 2020 and January 17, 2021. Descriptive statistics, One-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, Independent t-tests, and multiple linear regression were examined. Results Spirituality, health engagement and attitude toward vaccines, as well as health beliefs constructs (all scores of perceived benefits and barriers) were significant key factors of acceptance of vaccines. Interestingly, the spirituality, attitude toward vaccine, and health beliefs constructs including perceived susceptibility, and benefits indicated a significantly higher willingness. Conclusions Results demonstrated the utility of spirituality, health engagement, health belief model, and attitudes towards vaccines in understanding acceptance and willingness to pay for a vaccine. Specifically, a key obstacle to the acceptance of and willingness to pay COVID-19 vaccination included a high score of the perceived barrier construct. Moreover, the acceptance of and willingness to pay could be impaired by worries about the side-effects of a COVID-19 vaccination.
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